English version


Muszyna Almanac for Little Homeland 1991-2012


Over the two decades during which the Muszyna Almanac has been appearing, we have assembled between its covers a wealth of knowledge on the history and culture as well as the present day of Muszyna, Krynica, Żegiestów and a number of localities bordering the historic State of Muszyna, the southern Nowy Sącz district and the northern Spiš region. The knowledge we have gathered is now available to all interested parties online. Our yearbook’s traditional and electronic versions have numerous readers both in Poland and abroad.

We live in times of dynamically developing contacts amongst representatives of different European communities. Moreover, we are dealing with a great wave of migration to and from Poland. Our compatriots living abroad have neighbours to whom they must convey knowledge about the land of their forefathers in the language of the country of residence. Therefore, if we want to present our achievements to the world and have other communities recognise them, we must also speak about our local history and culture in foreign languages. This publication has been prepared in four different language versions — Polish, English, German and Slovak. We invite you to take an imaginary trip with us along the Almanac’s pathways which serve to build a sense of pride in the history, culture and contemporary times of our Little Homeland.

The first chapter proposes a stroll across the Muszyna Almanac’s 22 yearbooks. The next chapter deals with the content of the Almanac’s bibliography. You are subsequently invited to get acquainted with that unique wealth of the Sącz area — its local press. Moving along, we present the programme initiatives of the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac, including our flagship programme — the scholarship fund. And finally, in the footsteps of Professor Kazimierz Przyboś, we invite you to travel the meanders of Muszyna history, followed by a short stroll along its present-day streets and attractions.

We would like to cordially thank: Łucja Bukowska, Izabela Cywa, Zuzanna Długosz, Sylwia Gacek, Renata Kopacz, Kazimierz Przyboś, Małgorzata Przyboś and Agata Szymańska for their voluntary work on preparing the texts for this publication.

The foreign-language translation has been financed through a grant from the Małopolska Patronage 2012 programme, for which we extend our heartfelt appreciation to the Małopolska Marshal’s Office and which we have put to good use.

Bożena Mściwujewska-Kruk

Muszyna Almanac Editor-in-Chief

Ryszard Kruk

President of the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac

Muszyna, 29 October 2012





Introduction Page 1

Chapter 1. The Muszyna Almanac 1991-2012

Chapter 2. Muszyna Almanac Bibliography

Chapter 3. Sącz Region Press Forum

Chapter 4. Annual Szczęsny Morawski Prize for the best book on the Sącz Region

Chapter 5. Muszyna Almanac Scholarship Fund

Chapter 6. Cyclical contests, cultural events and Polish-Slovak cooperation

Chapter 7. Friends of the Muszyna Almanac Meetings

Chapter 8. Outline history of Muszyna

Chapter 9. Muszyna in brief

Chapter 10. About us




Chapter 1. The Muszyna Almanac 1991-2012

We launched publishing the first "Muszyna Almanac" under the auspices of the Friends of Muszyna Region Society back in 1991. In 2010, the Society of Friends


of Muszyna Almanac became the publisher of this periodical. In the first year, the Almanac comprised 40 pages and for several last years we have been struggling not to exceed 400 pages.

We have always focused on the history of the Muszyna region and its people. Several hundred texts by dozens of authors covered these subjects. We have often visited our neighbour towns, also in the Slovak Spis and Saris.

Pages of the Almanac carry texts by professional historians, archaeologists, biologists, geologists as well as many others who may not be professional writers but do various public duties. People who are fascinated by history, study the past of Muszyna and its region to share their discoveries with the Almanac Readers.

Thanks to contacts with the local communities, we have been quite successful in searching around to reveal manuscripts, chronicles, and photographs often forgotten and sitting in deep drawers. We have looked for family stories and memoirs which are usually beyond the reach of research institutions.

History is a field of study worth promotion among the younger generation who should be aware of their birth place's past and the past of their neighbours. This is why we often try to present the history of Spis in papers written by our southern neighbours and in their own language.

Below, we invite our Readers to visit the pages of the Muszyna Almanac which has been published over 22 years in the Polish, English, German, and Slovak languages.

Muszyna Almanac 1991

Our first Almanac comprised only 40 pages and carried an outline of the history of Muszyna, its castle, and the associated legends, as well as the history of churches and cemeteries within the municipality boundaries and, eventually, the mineral water springs and the Museum. We also described several interesting walks or longer hiking tours and we recommend our Readers to get familiar with the poetry by Jerzy Harasymowicz. We have also drawn from the knowledge of historian and ethnographer Professor Roman Reinfuss, an outstanding expert and admirer of the Lemko culture whose custom and rituals were also presented on our pages.

Muszyna Almanac 1992

We invited the friends of Muszyna people to visit the town's archives and see the life of its residents as it was in several past centuries, to read about the origins of the Muszyna crest, and learn the findings of excavations atop the Castle Hill. We also encouraged the Readers to take hiking and car excursions for which Muszyna is an ideal starting point. Wherever you walk or drive outside Muszyna, you always come across old orthodox churches called "cerkiew,". Therefore we published brief background notes explaining the role played by the interior outfit in the Greek-Catholic religious ritual.

Poetry lovers could find in the Almanac some verses by Muszyna-born poet Adam Ziemianin and by some other amateur poets, too.

Muszyna Almanac 1993

We published a story by Jacek Zaremba who presented many interesting places in Muszyna's "big brother" town – Nowy Sącz, which celebrated its 700th jubilee that year.

The Readers were also invited to a droshky (horse-driven taxi) ride along the old Kościelna Street, past a charity centre Ochronka run by Sisters of Saint Elizabeth, towards the village of Powroźnik and its historical "cerkiew" dating back to the 17th century. In an interview with the Mayor of Muszyna's "little sister" Krynica, which celebrated its 200th jubilee in 1993, we were told about the problems and dreams of the fathers of this magnificent resort. But we also looked farther on, to the more remote neighbours, among them such villages as: Čirč, Podolinec, Hniezdne, and Stara Lubovla, to find out Polish traces in the Slovak part of the Spis region.

Having absorbed some historical knowledge, we went on to take a breath of the fresh mountain air by walking along the Muszynka and Poprad rivers where you may be lucky to spot the black stork. For those who love fiction, we included in the Almanac Adam Ziemianin's story about "grandma" Anna who had owned a guest house and, next to it, we published a little bit of poetry. In our series presenting famous and merited personalities who were born in Muszyna, lived somewhere else but always kept their home town in their hearts, we published an interview with composer Zbigniew Bujarski.

Muszyna Almanac 1994

Our proposal was: why not to travel back in time and look at the Muszyna Starosty in its prime, taste some wine with Jan Kochanowski of Czarnolas at the Castle, pop in to an old Muszyna school which kept training local children in reading and writing skills amidst many ups and downs over centuries. When hiking the hills around Muszyna, we could see the place of a legendary battle on the Garby and the trenches used by the Confederation of Bar guerrillas at the village of Muszynka, where Kazimierz Pułaski is said to have spent some time. When we took a tour of old Uniate Catholic churches, the true jewels of architecture still surviving in the area, we visited one of them at Izby where we admired a copy of an icon of the Protective Mother of God, widely worshipped there in the past.

We also visited the town of Bardejov in Slovakia, a place known for its long history and so very colourful that many claim it is as beautiful as Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula River. We also visited other places in Slovakia, like the hot springs outside Kežmarok where you can have a swim in sulphurized water, or escape summer heat and noise by walking into chilly caves.

Muszyna is all criss-crossed by railroads running in various directions. Passers-by and motorists are safe thanks to the crossing guards who work 24-hour shifts like decades ago, although they can use new technologies developed at the end of the 20th century, as Edward Drozd wrote. The old railway station in Muszyna did not survive to our time but at least we could move several decades back when reading Adam Ziemianin's story that features an old-fashioned chuff-chuff in Muszyna, among other things.

Muszyna Almanac 1995

This Almanac carried an outline of the town's history with a special focus on the time of World War I and the two decades separating it from World War II. We mentioned Mayor of Muszyna Antoni Jurczak, who performed his office in the years 1912-1938. Fifty years since his death passed in 1995 and on this occasion we published his grandson's reminiscences full of very warm words. In another tour of the history, we looked closer at the insurgents of the Confederation of Bar trying to solve the mystery of a distinction they used to confer on people. A story by Tadeusz Trajdos guided the Reader to the iconostases painted by Wiktor Zomph in the churches in Andrzejówka and Leluchów. We also wrote about Ignacy Medwecki who discovered and developed the resort village of Żegiestów, and then we went to the cemetery in Muszyna to find the graves of his family members. On the way, we stopped over at the graves of soldiers who died 1914.

In the nearby Krynica, we went to see an exhibition of paintings by Nikifor, a Lemko and a genius-primitive painter whose 100th birthday fell in 1995. While in Krynica, we listened to Jan Kiepura's belcanto in the Deptak promenade where music festival commemorating the great "singer from Sosnowiec" are held every year. Our pages dedicated to literature offered a meeting with a fictitious resort goer Benek in a text written by Adam Ziemianin, and with a figure named Południca in a story written in the local dialect by Franek Kmietowicz who for years lives in Canada but loves the local folk culture and history.

Muszyna Almanac 1996

We started with a review of literary works about the Muszyna region which was often described by great masters, among them poet Jan Kochanowski of Czarnolas, who admired the sophisticated taste of the Starost of Muszyna and his expert knowledge of wine. Then we invited the Readers to Żegiestów celebrating its 150th jubilee at the time and those who take interest in history, were invited to the place known as the Muszyna Castle and allowed to look at the Greek-Catholic parish records to find the traces of the Krynicki family who are so well rooted in the region. We also published the story of the Co-operative Bank in Muszyna and the people who worked for it. Another merited institution we described was the Centre of the Polish Association of the Blind which celebrated its 60th anniversary in 1996.

The Muszyna Market Square was guarded by two saints in their white little shrines: St. Florian, and St. John Nepomucene. The St. Florian's figure, which originally stood in the square, was moved to a shrine in Folwark, a Muszyna district on the left bank of the Poprad river. The history of the statue and the method used for its conservation were all described on the Almanac pages by a resident of the Folwark neighbourhood and a professional art conservator. Since St. Florian is a patron saint of the Fire Brigades, we should mention here Ferdynand Palej, a long-time and highly merited person for the local fire-fighters, and his great hobby – the Baszta Cinema.

Just a short walk from the Market Square is the St. Joseph's parish church with its three magnificent historic sculptures dating back to the 15th century. From there, we walked to the cemetery to see a shrine founded long ago by the Krynicki family.

For people who love reading fiction, we published a story about the Baszta Cinema, a local legend written in the local dialect and, in addition to that, we included a little bit of poetry, too. Music lovers could find in this Almanac a few words about the Old Music Festival in Stary Sącz. We presented several folk artists born in Muszyna in a reminiscence about Kunegunda Jeżowska. Another attraction we proposed was seeing a local wedding party as it was organized in the old times with all the occasional rituals, music, and songs.

The Almanac also carried a text by the rev. Stanisław Pietrzak who challenged the credibility of a 1209 document often quoted by historians as the first written record of Muszyna.

Muszyna Almanac 1997

This Almanac presented the current problems of the Resort Municipality of Muszyna, took us for a trip to a neighbour town of Levoča, Slovakia, and offered some good fiction and poetry devoted to local topics of Muszyna. It is worth to note, that the jewel of Spis, Levoča, was presented in the Almanac by a Slovak writer Jan Skupin. We also dedicated a special article to the history of Muszyna's town library. The library is highly merited for the cultural development of the town and it celebrated its 50th jubilee in 1997, despite the fact that it is much older than that. The text was written by long-time library manager Łucja Bukowska.

There were also a few texts about the fascinating history of the town. They discussed the first surviving written record mentioning the vicar of Muszyna, the founder of the parish Church bishop Trzebiecki, and spoke about St. Swierad whose figure can be seen in an external niche at the church's wall and who might have visited Muszyna once during his life.

We also offered to our Readers a text discussing many local place-names and phrases. Like most other communities, the local people in Muszyna also use lots of phrases and words which are known and spoken only here. This time we mainly focused on place-names.

Żegiestów is almost as important in the local chain of resorts as Muszyna, so we wrote a little about it too. A short distance from Żegiestów is the village of Wierchomla to which we dedicated a warm reminiscence with some Muszyna associations. This issue of the Almanac continued the last-year's story of the Krynicki family. But this time, we had two authors: a historian and a member of the family who is well versed in its fascinating history.

Muszyna Almanac 1998

The Almanac 1998 is largely devoted to the writings of Adam Ziemianin, a poet born in Muszyna who often writes about his home town. This issue carries a dozen or so excellent poems by Ziemianin, a funny short story, and an article on the poet's writings and traces of Muszyna present in his poetry.

As has been our tradition, we also wrote about the history of our town. We described the many floodings and fires that had troubled Muszyna in the past centuries and showed the buildings which did not exist anymore. We examined the inscriptions in the parish church, went back to the written chapters of the Krynicki family history, visited the War Veterans' Circle, and called in to the Jewish guest house "Bristol" that existed before the WWII.

But above all, in this issue we recalled many outstanding personalities who are merited for the town and its area. The work of Franek Kmietowicz was covered in the Almanac by his brother's son Witt Kmietowicz. Another article presented Franciszek Kmietowicz senior, a public activist, a medical doctor, and a long-time Mayor of Krynica. Our next reminiscence was about another activist and artist Karol Rojna who was the founder of the Muszyna Museum. In our series "From an old album" we present a Muszyna council member living before World War II Wawrzyniec Wójcik. Reverend Father Grzegorz Gołyźniak of Muszyna wrote an article dedicated to prelate Kazimierz Zatorski, a long-time vicar in Muszyna who celebrated his 90th birthday in 1998.

Muszyna is part of the life story of many extraordinary people. One of them is US Army General Leo J. Dulacki, a grandson of Antoni Jurczak, the distinguished Mayor of Muszyna. Other texts in the Almanac carried some more reminiscence about the "Villa Szwarcówka" hidden among lovely trees and also about the Lime Reserve.

As we walked towards the village of Leluchów along the Poprad river which so often floods the fields around, we could see what had remained of the old, deserted Wapienny quarry and when we searched some old archives, we found documents that carried us to an even older quarry called Dubne. We invited also to a bit longer hike atop the Jaworzyna.

Since it is our intention to protect local names and expressions, we continued writing about some place-names and we opened a series of texts on the most typical local words and phrases.

Muszyna Almanac 1999

Author Zbigniew Wolanin introduced our Reader to the fascinating and colourful world of paintings by Nikifor who liked to call himself the Matejko of Krynica. The real Matejko was also present on our pages in an article about his visit to Krynica and in which we could read how it happened that he sketched the Old Municipality in Muszyna. While writing about art, we also presented Józef Sikorski, a sculptor living in Muszyna.

For the first time, we published a text by a Slovak historian without translating it into Polish. The author, Ivan Chalupecky, is a long-time manager of Levoča archives. This paper opened a section in the Alamanac devoted to the Roman Catholic Church and its problems. Subsequent texts cast light on people associated in various ways, also indirectly, with the bishop's town of Muszyna, its churches, and the complex symbols still present in them as well as graves of Poles that came from Muszyna. We could find out from these texts that Cardinal Karol Wojtyła, now blessed John Paul II, had once hiked around the Muszyna area. During one of the pilgrimages to Poland as the Pope of Rome, he canonized Cunegundes the Lady of Sandeck.

The Reader also had an opportunity to reflect on the plight of Muszyna Jews expelled by Germans from on the Poprad river, which they thought to be also their home town. After a walk along Ogrodowa Street towards the old Jewish cemetery, having seen some of the guest houses built before World War II, visited the Museum where we were shown around by custodian Barbara Rucka, and after a long hike towards a place called Hala Pisana, we could go to Krynica by train once used by Nikifor who later copied the railroads and stations in his enchanting drawings.

While in the jewel of Polish health resorts Krynica, it is worth taking a stroll along the Pułaski Street, well above Jan Kiepura's "Patria" villa up to the Pułaski Mound just at the exit of the road from Krynica to Tylicz. We decided to write about it out of respect for the then Mayor of Krynica Dr Franciszek Kmietowicz and for many other outstanding residents of the town who devoted much of their time, effort, and private money to build the Mound and monument to Kazimierz Pułaski.

Our adventure with the Muszyna dialect started in the Almanac two years earlier. The 1999 issue added a handful of original words and expressions to our little Muszyna dictionary, and we also proposed some rules for its grammar.

In their warm stories presenting the charms of Muszyna, other authors wrote about their friends and relatives, and they reached deep into their old memories by re-discovering their family photo albums. Among the figures described in the Almanac, we found the 17th-century owner of the Muszyna State, bishop Piotr Gembicki; Jan Piróg, Mayor of Muszyna who lived on the turn of the 19th century, a forest ranger Michał Witowski, a deputy to the Sejm of the 2nd Republic of Poland Jan Pawłowski, a teacher from the Folwark neighbourhood Maria Heilman, and an old man named Wawrzek Bukowski.

Also for the first time, we published a list of people who donated money to the Muszyna Almanac Scholarship Fund. The first scholarship was extended to talented young people of Muszyna by friends of the Almanac in 1999.

Muszyna Almanac 2000

Like many other border towns and villages, Muszyna for centuries lived on the junction of different states, nations, and cultures. And we wanted to show how economic and cultural wealth of this region depended on those different people, nations, and religions. The beautiful reminiscence of Mirjam Bottlob written by her US-born son Jelus is an excellent example of that.

As usually, we invited our Readers to study a bit of Muszyna history and walk the nearby forests along local rivers and creeks, past Muszyna region shrines. One can see interesting natural objects and, on the road to the Malnik hill – which offers a magnificent panorama of the town, its Market Square, the Baszta tower, and Ogrodowa Street – one can stop for a while at the old matzevahs in the Jewish cemetery.

Having read about the adventures of the Carpathian highland robbers who used to operate around Muszyna too, we switched to a text on the life of the last Starost of Muszyna and the history of the Tarnów-Leluchów-Orlov railway line, and then to an article about the inter-war era, the years of German occupation, and the nearest past. We wanted the Reader to take interest in such things as the history of the Muszyna court of law by presenting the evolution of this important local institution.

We also paid a visit to Krynica twice, a hundred years ago and today, then we travelled to Andrzejówka, Dubne, Wierchomla, Żegiestów, and to several places in Slovakia, beyond the Polish border because we wanted to take a closer look at the Roma people living there. Apart from that, we visited Plavec, a village right behind the border about which we wrote in Polish and the Slovak languages.

Romantic travellers who used to move along the Poprad valley long time ago admired the beauty of this land and included their impressions of the place into their poems and art. The beauty of the land was still there to be admired but some things had changed, indeed. The grouse birds did not live at Jaworzyna peak anymore, some landscape features were lost forever and the air was not as clean as it had been long ago. But the forests once belonging to Count Stadnicki were still there and the Popradzki Landscape Park was gradually getting richer in nature monuments, clean water springs, and "mofetas" (springs emitting CO2 which comes from inside the Earth).

We never forgot about the key historical monuments in Muszyna. So we took a walk to the Castle ruins and to the St. Joseph Church so nicely renovated in the recent time. And there was a surprise: the conservators unearthed the lost portraits of two bishops, Andrzej Trzebicki and Andrzej Załuski. Both personalities were presented in the Almanac two years earlier.

Some other texts were that year dedicated to the memory of: Jerzy Udziela, Jerzy Harasymowicz, an outstanding public activist and nature protector Count Adam Stadnicki, blacksmith and Mayor of Muszyna Stanisław Porth and, Kazimierz Miczulski, a police officer murdered by the Soviets at Ostaszków. Many Muszyna-born people would travel far! On the way, they got into unusual adventures, like the last Starost of Muszyna, the war-time plight experienced by many of those mentioned above, and by soldier Wiktor Borzemski who fought in World War II.

We presented the efforts and work done to the benefit of the youngest generation on the example of the Extra-school Education Centre which had just turned 20-years old and we covered the ceremony of awarding that year's Muszyna Almanac scholarships.

Muszyna Almanac 2001

It has become our tradition to write about the history of the Muszyna State and the people who had some direct or indirect influence on its destinies because of their occupation or role in public life. This time we started with the presentation of founder of Polish balneology Professor Józef Dietl, a person of great merits to all Polish health resorts. The story is told to us by his brother's grandson, Professor Jerzy Dietl. We also wrote about several other outstanding personalities: historian, writer, and artist Szczęsny Morawski, painter Wojciech Gerson, and actor Jerzy Roland who was buried at the Muszyna cemetery.

Our articles on history guided the Readers far back into the past when Muszyna's army would triumph (or lose) in battlefields as it fought in support of the bishops of Cracow, to the time when Muszyna was born as a health resort, and to the grim years of World War II. Several stories by Rafał Żebrowski and Leszek Hońda described Jewish fates. The history of our town may have been full of ups and downs but all its ethnic and religious groups lived here in piece for centuries.

We suggested taking a stroll along Kościelna Street which had suffered several conflagrations in the past, and to walk up to the St. Joseph Church to see the meticulously renovated statue of Virgin Mary which was shown, in the company of the statues of St. Hedwig of Silesia and St. Odilia, at a jubilee exhibition in Cracow in 2000, as a historic relic originally belonging to Wawel Castle Cathedral in Cracow.

From that church, it was only a short walk to the cemetery with its tall lime trees and graves of many merited residents of Muszyna. We stopped and bowed to the grave of sister Rajmunda of the Sisters of Saint Elizabeth convent who was famous for being always ready to extend the helpful hand and who died in 2000.

While strolling here and there in Muszyna, we often came across old and new roadside crosses and Witt Kmietowicz wrote about them. Then we walked to the Zapopradzie neighbourhood where the old "band pavilion" does not exist anymore but some forgotten tunes still seem to sound there. Years ago, Muszyna residents and health resort visitors, men, women, young, old, and those of various creeds, would peacefully spend their time there enjoying the pleasures of the river-bank beach. That atmosphere could be now found in a text by Miriam Akavia who wrote about her last summer holiday in Muszyna just before the outbreak of World War II.

If you happen to come to Zapopradzie in May, you will hear a trumpet playing tunes dedicated to Virgin Mary atop the Castle Hill. That is a real true "Muszyna serenade..."

Or if you walk along the Poprad river, you will go past some charming old villas, one of them is called "Nasz Domek" (Our Home) and belongs to the Peszkowski family. If you walk just a few yards on, you we will find yourself in Legnava, Slovakia, where legends interweave with history inside an ancient monastery. Opposite the monastery on the other bank of the river, you will see a Polish village of Milik, next to it another one Andrzejówka, and further on, Żegiestów whose pre-war glory can be seen in old post-cards copied on the Almanac pages. Walking back, upstream the Poprad river, we got to the border village of Leluchów where cherry trees are most beautiful when flowering. It is not very far from there to Stara Lubovla and we had a story about it, this time written in Slovak. When exploring the geological features of the Muszyna landscape, we looked at its extremely interesting boulders, rocks, and caves.

The last part of the Almanac carried a report on the previous year's meeting of the Friends of the Muszyna Almanac, an account on a panel discussion titled: "Muszyna – on the borderline of cultures," and on the distribution of that year's scholarships to students of the local Senior Secondary School.


Muszyna Almanac 2002

When writing about the history of the region that time, we went much farther back than before. Jarosław Stolarski showed us the traces left on Muszyna soil by animals living here thirty million years ago!

But we also explored a less remote past, between the 15th century and the beginning of our 21st century. We published a story about bishop Jan Muskata and presented one of the Muszyna State owners, bishop of Cracow Jakub Zadzik. And we described the beginnings and history of the Greek-Catholic Church in the Muszyna area and in Slovakia. The time between the World Wars is also shown in the reminiscence of the Muszyna power station, the sawmill, and in the text about the Jewish organisation B'nai B'rith. Much attention was devoted to Krynica in an article on old post cards featuring the streets of the town.

And we recalled the air-crash in Krynica in May 1930. We carried a few accounts on the facts from World War II and the German occupation: the first days of the September 1939 campaign, attempts of some people to secretly sneak across the border, long days in a German jail in Muszyna where one of the inmates was a great theatrical personality Józef Szajna. A story of the war-time plight of the Kmietowicz family members and Antoni's days during the battle of Monte Cassino was extremely interesting. Judge Adam Bień, one of the 16 top commanders of the Polish Underground State who were indicted and tried in Moscow, had spent holidays with his family in Muszyna in the years 1938-1939.

Just for a change, we invited the Readers to the world of poetry where we picked up from the Biblioteka Sądecka library resource the story of painter Bolesław Barbacki and one about Slovak women's rights advocate Terezia Vansova born Medvecka (this text was written in the Slovak language).

The Youth Visegrad Clubs were organised in Muszyna and Stara Lubovla in 2001 and the young people who took part in the initiative now present their work and plans for the coming summer holidays. The Club sessions were this time attended also by young people from Hungary and the Czech Republic. We were proud to mention the well-developing idea of the Scholarship Fund.

The Muszyna Library and Regional Museum organized a number of interesting events during the former year and the Almanac carried a brief record of those exhibition inaugurations, concerts, and a meeting with Israeli writer Miriam Akavia.

Muszyna Almanac 2003

At first, we went to the village of Kolačkov in the Spis, not far from Stara Lubovla, where traces of Polish settlements can be seen even today. We stayed a bit longer in the area to study the history of the nearby Podolinec and to describe the local folk garments (article written in the Slovak language). Back to Poland, we wrote about the times of bishop Jan Małachowski and about the religious people of Muszyna and the local custom heritage which has survived to our time.

The masterly writings of 19th century scholars and writers helped us to present the life of the Lemkos in the past and we also had an essay on the Greek-Catholic parishes in the Muszyna Church district. Then we looked into the minutes of municipal meetings held in the village of Andrzejówka in the 1930s and we went on another hike, this time to Leluchów and the surrounding hills.

A stroll to the Muszyna Jewish cemetery invites a reflection on the plight of the Holocaust victims, among them, those who were brought by the Germans to work in the sawmill, a part of the Muszyna labour camp.

You cannot study culture without studying the language. The Almanac often wrote about local dialect phrases, unseen anywhere else and, sometimes, very funny. This time we printed an extensive excerpt from a dialect dictionary written several decades ago by Professor Eugeniusz Pawłowski.

We visited the region's principal town of Nowy Sącz to find out about the dramatic history of its medieval castle and to visit the J. Szujski Library. From there, we drove along the curly Poprad river valley and its ancient merchant route to Rytro to explore the local castle ruins for treasure. We continued our journey to Krynica along the same route people had once travelled to the medicinal waters in their coaches or by rail via Muszyna, where the train had a stop and the visitors could see the railway station building.

We recalled the pre-war times and the years just after, and we went to see some interesting places like a scout camp and the Muszyna power station. The Almanac presented a set of 19th century press reports from Krynica and Muszyna and excerpts from old tourist guides advertising the charms of the two towns.

Once we focused on old documents, we directed the Readers' attention to the abundance of information often contained in a small piece of paper, such as, a recorded letter slip from the post office. Having looked at it closely, we were able to reconstruct quite a bit of historical facts, also those important for Muszyna alone.

The Almanac carried a good deal of fiction, stories and poems by Adam Ziemianin and other authors, some of them very young who are just about to become mature writers.

Our present time brings about not only successes but disasters too. The destructive power of nature struck Muszyna in July 2002. The successes include, in the first place, the construction of a border-bridge over Smereczek and opening two medicinal water centres called "Antoni" and "Wanda" on the other bank of the Poprad river, and also "Milusia" in the old "Mineral Baths" built by engineer Krówczyński at the Piłsudski Street. Another success was certainly the new Muszyna Branch of the Fine Arts Association and a magnificent exhibition of works by its members titled: "Nosi mnie" staged in Warsaw. We mention those facts adding some information about the attainments of the Youth Visegrad Clubs in Stara Lubovla, Muszyna, the Hungarian town of Nyíregyháza and in Vsetin, the Czech Republic.

Muszyna Almanac 2004

We became true Europeans on May 1, 2004! Looking at the history of our little town in the mountains which was, nevertheless, always present and visible in Polish history chapters, we could realize we had always been part of Europe... We welcomed joining Europe as warmly as we could at a meeting with our Slovak friends on the Visegrad Bridge. The main figures in the ceremony were young members of the Visegrad Clubs from Muszyna and Stara Lubovla, who actually gave the name to the Leluchów-Čirč border-bridge.

This Almanac's first pages were about Krynica. An article by Jacek Purchla covered the 150th birth anniversary of a Cracow-based architect Jan Zawiejski who designed many buildings so typical of Krynica, among them, the Stary Dom Zdrojowy and the parish church in the spa district of the town. Then we examined the resource of the Muszyna parish library and some old documents bought at auctions or found in other museums. Then, we went back to Krynica to absorb some culture by listening about Jan Kiepura and the beginnings of the music festival named after him, and to visit the gallery "Pod Kasztanem." We also followed up our 2002 article to write more about the life of an airman who had crashed in Krynica in 1930.

We devoted much space to our Slovak neighbours and the first days of World War II which were so dramatic on both sides of the state border and we presented the Kołaczkowski family of Kolačkov, Slovakia, whose records go back to the 16th century, and we wrote about Chmielnica (Hobgart) a village close to Stara Lubovla populated by German settlers several centuries ago (article written in the Slovak language).

The ruins of the Starost Castle dominate over Muszyna. How many mysteries and puzzles are still hidden in the ruins, despite extensive archaeological excavations and scientific research to-date? Coming back from a walk to the Castle Hill, we thought what should the Muszyna crest look like today to meet all the heraldry requirements.

Several native Muszyna residents told us about the inter-war era. That time was also covered by the article on problems the then Jewish community in Krynica had with the legal status of the ritual animal slaughterer, the shochet. The other articles took us to Nowy Sącz and its White Monastery, then to Żegiestów, Andrzejówka as it was in the 1930s, Złockie, and Izba where we could still find relics and memorabilia of the Confederation of Bar insurgents.

Finally we went back to Muszyna, visited its Zapopradzie district and the old mineral baths, then we looked through old memoirs and photo albums kept by the Medwecki family. The old Muszyna vicarage once again witnessed the visit the then Archbishop of Cracow, Cardinal Karol Wojtyła paid there over 30 years ago.

We presented the result of a photo competition organized by the Krynica Photographic Society and the editors of the Muszyna Almanac, titled: "Architectural detail in Tylicz and its area."

Muszyna Almanac 2005

The death of Pope John Paul II had its impact on all of us. The stories of great people and the small ones with great hearts explains the value of life and the meaning of the passing time. Therefore, we kept trying to save from oblivion as much of our little motherland's past as we only could...

By describing the lives of Muszyna residents, especially the Bujarski family, we demonstrated why it pays off to dig into old documents and try to restore at least a bit of the family history. We discussed the archaeological finds on the Castle Hill and the mysterious walls incidentally unearthed on the Muszynka creek bank. We inspected the historical records of the Lubomirski family so closely associated with the Sądecczyzna and Spis regions, we went back to the work of a painter from Bardejov whose icons are found elsewhere in the Muszyna area, especially in Andrzejówka and Leluchów. While in Andrzejówka, we read some minutes of the local council meetings held in 1935 and we took a glance at some older documents discussed in a text about beer-brewing industry in the Muszyna State of the early 18th century and also mentioned in an article about Antoni Schneider's Files. We tried to reconstruct a camp of the Confederation of Bar insurgents at Izby, then we looked at some more documents of the Kołaczkowski family and their relative Jakub Łomnicki.

The Almanac also wrote about the people called Black Highlanders of Piwniczna and their Slovak neighbours who invited us to the Slovak villages of Cigeľka and Bušova. We also published a brief calendar of events going on in the Stara Lubovla county during the Slovak anti-German uprising in the years 1944-1945.

Architecture was the main subject of texts covering the 1926 competition for a design of a guest house in Krynica, discussing the work of a Slovak architect Dušan Jurkovič, and the building regulations which were in force in Krynica before World War II. We paid a visit to Krynica also in connection with our story about the Spa Band conductor Adam Wroński.

The topic of the Muszyna Jewish community came up again in the form of a photograph showing a poor garlic and onions seller included in our series From an old photo album and in a poem by Adam Ziemianin. We also published some memoirs mentioning people who devoted all their lives or, sometimes, just a short time, to our town. Among those were: Professor Leon Marchlewski, great artist Jan Matejko, Józef Łepkowski, Zdzisław Krawczyński, Professor Adam Mściwujewski, Zygmunt Syguliński, and members of the Medwecki family.

Further pages of the Almanac took us to a hunt with an old forester, told us about the jubilee of the school at Złockie, allowed the Visegrad Youth to share their achievements and ideas with us and the Reader.

And, of course, we also carried some poetry. Apart from Ziemianin's poems, we also published other authors whose hearts belong to Muszyna and its region.

We kept the word given in Almanac 2004 to deliver to the Poor Clare Sisters of Stary Sącz the document published on our pages last year. We also printed a brief photo report on the occasion.

Muszyna Almanac 2006

This time we began with art, non-professional but excellent art which grew from the bottom of the artist's heart. Zbigniew Wolanin wrote about brothers Jan and Stanisław Niewola, sculptors and painters in Muszyna, and Bogdan Karski made references to Nikifor in his essay on attempts to forge his most single paintings.

When going back into the history of the Muszyna State and its surroundings, we tracked down the origins of the place-name Krępak, we examined the tough law imposed by the Muszyna criminal court, and we studied the history of a certain curse. Our pages also carried the history of the Voluntary Fire Brigades in Krynica and the foundation of the Krynica hospital fifty years ago.

Wars would rummage close or far from Muszyna but they always influenced the life of the community. The battles fought in the Carpathian range in World War I left many traces in the Muszyna cemetery and the years of World War II still bring dramatic memories to the minds of the older Muszyna generation.

And again, the Almanac dedicated its pages to such personalities as the great Polish geographer and traveller Maciej Bogusz Stęczyński and Jakub Łomnicki, known for his papers on the Kolačkov village in Spis. But some names were mentioned for the first time, among them, Professor Napoleon Cybulski who studied the dietary habits of the Małopolska population, the people of Muszyna included, at the end of the 19th century.

When standing in front of Virgin Mary's figure atop the Castle Hill, we explained to our Readers the destinies of the statute before it ended up in the Muszyna Castle ruins. And we told the story of the never-materialized plan to build a Pułaski monument in Krynica. Then we set off to look for some more contemporary samples of ceramics application in the construction of various buildings in Krynica.

Doctors, teachers, and judges used to make an elite of the small-town communities in the past. Chemists also belonged to that group. That year, we started a series of stories about old-time chemist's shops in other towns not far from Muszyna. The first was a pharmacy in Żegiestów where we stayed a little longer to learn some more about the glorious past of this resort on the Poprad river. We continued our journey along the river stopping over at Andrzejówka to read the council meetings minutes of the 1930s, then we crossed the state border to visit some Slovak towns which have many close relations of all sorts with Muszyna. Having reached Stara Lubovla and Podolinec, we went on to identify the traces of the Lubomirski Starosts and while in Bardejov, we probed into the history of the local Jewish community. We also called in Gabołtów, a destination of Slovak Gypsies going on their Marian pilgrimages.

We recommended to our Readers the Carpathian Almanac "Płaj" and the second volume of the "Rocznik Sądecki" almanac whose all printed copies were destroyed by the censorship in 1949 but which was reprinted last year owing to our initiative cooperation of the Nowy Sącz Town Hall staff.

Next, we invited the Readers to a walk among the "singing" mofetas, or CO2 emitting springs, along the Złocki creek and to an excursion with our friend, the forester. Accompanied by Adam Schwarz-Czarnowski, we recalled the 100th jubilee of the Polish Tourist Association which often played the role of the "Department of Polish Character."

The female volleyball team from Muszyna gave us a great deal of fun last May by winning Champion of Poland title after a year of hard work! The road they marched to the victory was described by Andrzej Koszucki.

Muszyna Almanac 2007

This Almanac's front-pages offered an article from the series dedicated to the history of chemist's shops in this land on the Poprad river. This time, Maciej Bilek presents the past and present of the "Pod Aniołem" pharmacy in Muszyna. We made another effort to explain the mystery of the beginnings of the Muszyna parish and we took a closer look at the consequences of Franciszek Krasiński's becoming the bishop of Muszyna, and we studied an old geological map of the Galicia province. Our next proposition was to walk along the footpaths near the village of Wysowa to identify the traces of the Confederation of Bar insurgents, from where we went to Krynica to see the construction of a funicular on the Góra Parkowa hill in 1937. And we continued hunting for the connotations of the place-name Krępak in the nearby Beskidy mountain range, also on the Slovak sied of the border.

We visited two museums in Slovakia: a magnificent bourgeois house in Stara Lubovla and a parish museum in the village of Čirč right behind the border. From there, we went a little farther up to the Hungarian town of Szekesfehervar to find the grave of Ścibor of Ściborzyce, a Polish knight who served Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg.

The memories published in the Almanac showed many people who had some impact on the history of this region, among them, Maciej Bogusz Stęczyński, Leon Nowotarski, Edward Steczowicz, Aleksander Rojna, Leon Czmiel, Łucjan Machniewski. Some of them were well-known, others who were not, deserved to be recalled and kept in the public memory. A great Polish tobogganist Maria Semczyszak-Haszczakowa described her sports successes. We also published a moving letter from Israel.

Further on, we presented the history of the Sądeckie Fine Arts Association, we gave an account on a photo exhibition dedicated to Krynica, and on the aftermath of a photo competition "Architectural detail in Żegiestów" which was organised in collaboration with the Krynica Photographic Society. We invited the Readers to a stroll around Muszyna to see ceramic applications in the architecture of the local sanatoriums and, next, to a short trip to Żegiestów, Folwark, and Szczawnik. Then, we went to Andrzejówka to make one more search of old documents from the 1930s. And we studied the Krynica town budget made 110 years ago.

Once we were in the mountains, we had to write about the Voluntary Mountain Rescue Service GOPR, just for our safety. So, there was a report on the jubilee celebrated by the Krynica GOPR Branch.

Then we came back to our old Muszyna where we could try excellent water in the Zapopradzie neighbourhood, listen to some music played in the amphitheatre, and look for the evidence of Kazimierz Wierzyński's visit to Muszyna. We hoped to hear the trumpet play on the Baszta in May...

Curiosity made us inspect the unique icons from the collection of Małgorzata Bajorek, we published a few photo reports on various cultural events held in Muszyna in the recent months with a concert by our scholarship beneficiaries in the first place.

We also published a note saying that a new public initiative in Muszyna crystallized in a new Association whose aim was to honour the memory of Pope John Paul II by building his memorial in Muszyna.

Muszyna Almanac 2008

The Almanac started its journey with studying the traces left by our ancestors on the Baszta hill, a long-time seat of the Starosts of Muszyna. Having seen the Castle Hill and its mysterious corners, we moved to more cosy archives to study old documents. We inspected a forged document allegedly made in 1209 to finally close the dispute over the date of the first written record of Muszyna. It should be kept in mind, however, that the 1288 documents which underlay an agreement between Comes Mironieg, his wife, and the Cracow Bishop Paweł of Przemanków, are all authentic.

The text written by Tadeusz Łopatkiewicz allowed us to accompany Stanisław Tomkowicz, a great 19th century history expert and relic's conservator in his outstanding work of describing the local historical heritage. After that, we examined the records in the Book of arrivals in the town of Muszyna, we learnt about the local craft guilds and unions of which only some tradition and a flag have survived. The flag is now carried in the Corpus Christi procession every year. While in the Slovak village of Podolinec, we tried to find out in the old books kept by the Piarist Fathers which sons of the Muszyna bourgeois were educated in the Piarist College. Back on the Polish side of the border, in Piwniczna, we studied the history of the "Under Providence" pharmacy and when in Slovakia again, we studied an 18th century map of the Lubovla lower castle (article by Filip Fetko written in the Slovak language).

On further pages we described a little-known episode of the Slovak platoon's fights in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising and we gave a painful account on the tragic destinies of an anti-communist guerrilla detachment fighting in the Beskid Sądecki mountain range.

We were always interested in people, hence our stories of those who used to live here permanently, and those who only occasionally came to the medicinal waters. Among those visitors was once very popular writer Józef Ignacy Kraszewski.

We went on a hike to the "Bacówka nad Wierchomlą" hotel, we recalled some of our childhood memories from Krynica and Muszyna, and for the last time we went to inspect the minutes of the village council meeting in Andrzejówka. In the company of Piotr Osóbka, we also visited Żegiestów to find out with sorrow that the spa part of the village had crumbled into pieces.

Next, we arranged a "trap" with the intention to catch a regional poet and then we rushed to the ceremony of the 40th jubilee of Adam Ziemianin as a poet and his 60th birthday. We devoted some space to the Muszyna Public Library, a meeting place for many people, a venue of seminars and exhibitions which was marking its 60th jubilee.

We then left the universe of word to move into the universe of image where we saw the works by a non-professional painter Czesław Czmiel who died in 1998. We recalled an art exhibition at the Muszyna Regional Museum and the collection of old post-cards featuring Krynica, Muszyna, and Żegiestów staged at the Library building. The previous year's edition of the photo competition focused on gravestone details at the historical cemetery of the Muszyna State. We printed the aftermath of the competition. How impressive!

Muszyna Almanac 2009

A monument to Cardinal Karol Wojtyła was built in Muszyna in spring 2008 on a public initiative. On 2 August, the monument was unveiled and consecrated. From that time on, it would be seen by all visitors entering the central part of Muszyna. It is worth stopping there for a while and recall what Pope John Paul II had done for our country.

The Almanac is not just a yearly printed publication. It is also a variety of initiatives which are described on its pages. One of those initiatives the previous year was an exhibition organised in cooperation with the Krynica Photographic Society, summarizing the several editions of the Architectural Detail competitions, staged at the Museum of the Earth, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw.

The Almanac invited us to a walk to the Muszyna church where the Virgin and Child, often called here the Lady of Muszyna, reigns in the main altar. Author Piotr Łopatkiewcz told us more about the provenance of that beautiful medieval sculpture and two other sculptures of St. Hedwig and St. Odilia.

Then we left the church and walked up to the Castle ruins to see the progress in excavations. Like in the previous years, we were shown around the digging area by Barbara Chudzińska. In the Greek-Catholic parish of Čirč, Slovakia, vicar Jaroslav Popovec allowed us to see the church flags painted at the end of the 19th century, most probably by an artist from Muszyna! From there, we went to Stara Lubovla and Podolinec guided by a historian from the Lubovla Castle Miroslav Števík and nearly a century-old photographs. We were also told which craftsmen worked to keep the Castle residents in good mood centuries ago... Later on, we read about wings fashioned by a mysterious monk from the Red Monastery who used them to fly as far and high up as over the Tatra Range rocky peaks.

When speaking on the history of Muszyna, one must not skip the Border Guard force which protected the frontiers of the Second Republic of Poland. Border Guard officers from the Jasło district fought and died in the Muszyna area in the first half of September 1939. Where are they buried? Have they been exhumed later and, if they have, where are their graves now? Can anyone answer the questions asked by Waldemar Bocheński?

Two gentlemen of the Christian name Mieczysław were presented on our pages. Their surnames were Orłowicz and Karłowicz. They were rather different characters but they had one feature in common – the love for the mountains. Since we were always keen on digging in old Muszyna documents, we were keen on doing so this time too. First, we took the Town Book to read the names of persons accepted for the Muszyna town law 1601-1833, then we looked into the draft records of the mid-17th century. Having moved into the inter-war era, we inspected the Memoirs of medical doctors' conventions in Krynica.

The local Lemkos went through a heart-breaking experience when forced to leave their native mountains forever during the "Vistula" campaign. We had an opportunity to read about one of the expelled families, the Tyliszczaks of the village Jastrzębik.

We kept taking interest in historical and cultural relics in our region. Rafał Żebrowski described the destinies of paintings by Feliks M. Wygrzywalski and Kazimierz Sichulski which had once decorated the walls of the "Lwigród" guest house in Krynica. We mentioned the Kazimierz Pułaski Mound and monument, as well as an obelisk commemorating poet Juliusz Słowacki in Żegiestów-Zdrój.

And we presented a collection of photographs from the Art Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw featuring the churches in the area of Muszyna and Krynica; we also learnt about the Muszyna-related documents kept in the Polish Museum at Rapperswil.

Then we introduced to our Readers a Muszyna-born composer Zbigniew Bujarski who celebrated his 70th birthday in 2008. We conveyed the best jubilee greetings to Adam Czarnowski, a geographer, photographer, collector, and writer associated with Muszyna in his young years who still loves to come over to Muszyna whenever he can.

We joined local scouts to an excursion along small local rivers and creeks and we got as far as Rytro. While on our way, we carefully bypassed a plant called atropa bella-donna because expert Maciej Bilek told us a lot about it. We also called in to Andrzejówka to see some old school registers, after which we went on our traditional stroll, and eventually visited the villa called Nasz Domek in the Zapopradzie.

Muszyna Almanac 2010

We were extremely sorry to announce that the long-time school master of the Muszyna Senior Secondary School and the Mayor of Muszyna Waldemar Serwiński died in a car crash in July 2009.

This jubilee issue of the Almanac as usually followed its familiar and historical trails around the Muszyna region. We discovered some new facts or dispersed myths, like the one of the cordovans in the St. Józef's Church in Muszyna whose real age was established owing to a profound analysis done by Ojcumiła Sieradzka-Malec. We went to the Baszta again to see last year's excavation finds and to learn the latest news. We also finished, thanks to the work of Kazimierz Przyboś, reviewing the record of people accepted for the Muszyna town law in the years 1601-1833. We looked into the parish books to find traces of an unknown Muszyna-born composer Wojciech Pankiewicz, we presented the works of an old and familiar painter Wiktor Zomph, we studied the provenance of such place-names as Beskid and Bieszczad and, assisted by Tomasz Borucki, we tried to locate them in the maps. Being interested in the political life of Muszyna and its area before World War II, we also did some reading on the subject in the regional newspapers of the time. As we walked about in the beautiful Krynica, we popped in the charming "Gallery under a Horse-Chestnut Tree," visited another exhibition of the Krynica Photographic Society arranged in the Pijalnia Główna building, and we looked around to spot some old Krynica chemist shops.

Assisted by Maria Zajączkowska, we reached as far as over the ocean to find any traces of the Tyliszczak family. While on the other hemisphere, we ran across the traces of Władysław Kluger of Krynica, a representative of the Polish 19th century intelligentsia.

Then we examined the pages of the minutes of the Muszyna council meetings held in the 1930s in which we were helped by materials compiled by Małgorzata Przyboś. We met with Nikifor in an article by Bogdan Karski and accompanied the artist into the Poprad valley aboard an old railway coach. We travelled to Krynica "by rail" using a railroad built a hundred years ago by engineer Ferdynand Gisman. Krynica used to be a destination of prominent visitors, often members of aristocratic and royal families and we described one of such visits which rocked the town.

Our agenda also included an excursion to Spis and Saris. We were curious to know when the Polovtsy first came to that land because some place-names around Muszyna seem to have been left for us by that tribe. Then we presented the work of a Kežmarok-based sculptor of Silesian origin Johann Feeg, we went back to our investigation of civilian settlements on the Stara Lubovla Castle (these papers were written in the Slovak language).

We published some reports on the war-time battles fought by soldiers from Muszyna on the Western front in World War II and on the experience of those who spent the German occupation years in death camps. We recall a hero of two nations, Michal Strenk, a Slovak from the nearby Jarabina who fought as a US Army soldier and was killed in the battle of the Iwo Jima island.

It so happened that the year 2009 brought about a couple of local anniversaries and jubilees. A hundred and thirty-five years passed since the beginning of the Krynica Spa Band, 50 years since the Krynica Music School was established, and the first post-war secondary school was opened in Muszyna 65 years ago. The following cultural and educational institutions in Muszyna also marked their jubilees: the Jan Kochanowski Senior Secondary School, the Municipal Culture Centre, and an Extra-school Education Centre. The 600th anniversary of the Battle of Tannenberg was also marked in 2010. We wrote very briefly about traces left by the ceremonies marking its 50oth anniversary in Muszyna region.

Muszyna Almanac 2011

One hundred years passed in 2011 since the railway line Muszyna-Krynica was launched. It was a major event in the history of both towns. Although many residents of Muszyna who made quite decent money on taxiing visitors to Krynica in their horse-driven vehicles and ardently protested against the railway project, the line was completed and largely strengthened the development of the jewel of Polish resorts, Krynica. The Almanac also presented the history of the Muszyna-Krynica railway line in a text written by Leszek Zakrzewski, and the ups and downs of the Railway Joint-Stock Company in a story by Leszek Koziorowski.

All of us would like to know more about our ancestors. Where did we come from? Who came to populate the banks of the Dunajec and Poprad river ages ago? We were introduced into the meanders of an innovative method for genealogical research by Stanisław Pietrzak who wrote an article on the subject.

But the traces of the very first people living here are really very scarce. Only sometimes we were lucky to unearth something in the Baszta ruins and on the site where the Starost's residence used to be at the foot of the Castle Hill. The results of the excavations were described to us in texts written by Barbara Chudzińska and Radosław Palonka. Articles by these young academics from the Jagiellonian University told us what were the dietary habits of the people who once lived in the Muszyna Castle and how they solved the problem of fresh water supply.

But the residents of Muszyna by no means drank water alone. The Castle people and the general population of Muszyna loved stronger drinks too. Guided by Witt Kmietowicz, we looked inside dark, stuffy interiors of inns and taverns to see what they were served to eat and drink in the Muszyna area.

Moving on along the Poprad river towards the town of Nowy Sącz, we took a glance at Żegiestów, which had flourished so nicely in past years, we inspected an old pipe unearthed in Piwniczna-Zdrój, and we studied the crest of Nowy Sącz, the principal town of the county. Having spent some time on the Dunajec river, we went back to the Poprad river valley and to our Slovak neighbours. We first stopped at Čirč to see an intriguing 17th century icon of God's Mother, we tried to find some traces of a mysterious medieval settlement, and studied the business relations between the Lubovla Castle and other towns in the Spis region (these texts were written in the Slovak language). Our trip to Slovakia this time ended in Vyšné Ružbachy where we arrived in the company of Waldemar Oszczęda who told us more about a few important figures in Orava and Spis.

On return to Muszyna, we paid our attention to the 20th century. Kazimierz Przyboś described the outbreak of World War I in Galicia and explained the context of developments in Muszyna in the first days of the war. The article discussed the notes made at the time by the then vicar Father Józef Gawor which reflected the fears of the local people in autumn and winter, 1914-1915.

That year's Almanac also discussed the political activities of the Lemko and Jewish people once living in Muszyna and around it, and we published some more minutes of the Muszyna Council meetings held in 1933, whose texts were edited by Małgorzata Przyboś. An article written by Małgorzata Reinhard-Chlandy examined the Chronicle of the Zdrojowa Restaurant in Krynica which was full of entries made by the visitors.

The World War II was discussed in a text on the articles published in Pharmaceutical News, a periodical coming out during the Nazi General Governement. Editors of that paper in 1940 devoted much space to Krynica which was turned into a resort reserved for German soldiers and officials.

The years of war and German occupation was a time of fighting for the Homeland on the frontlines or in the underground. And it was a time of ordinary people who would never think of themselves as heroes but they suffered and behaved like heroes anyway. Some of such people are mentioned in the Chronicle of the Muszyna War Veteran's Circle.

Old documents, which represent no real value at a first glance, sometimes refer to important matters and carry a huge load of information. Example: the importance of seals often impressed on official and court letters, post-office slips, etc., is explained to our Reader by Ryszard Kruk.

The Lemko families living in the Muszyna area suffered the plight of the expelled people at the end of World War II and after it was over. The Lemko deportations to Ukraine and their deportations under the "Vistula" campaign, are all described and the numbers of the expelled are given in an article by Izabela Cywa.

Muszyna is getting more beautiful every day, despite the fact that the town was stricken by a heavy flooding in early summer last year. Mayor Jan Golba told us about his plans, dreams, and key objectives.

There is a tiny little street in Muszyna. Nothing special at the first sight. But its name is unusual: Zefirka. The name commemorates a Club of Modellers in Muszyna which celebrated its 50th jubilee in 2011. The Almanac recalled the fact and reviewed the Club's achievements.

Once again we presented the results of a photo competition organised in collaboration with the Krynica Photographic Society and its Chairman Juliusz Jarończyk. This time, the photographers focused on details of old farm buildings in the area once called the Muszyna State.

Muszyna Almanac 2012

Karolina Grobelska rocked Krynica and inspired our imagination by writing in Almanac 2010 about the visit paid there by the heir to the Dutch throne and her husband back in 1937. When the present Queen of the Netherlands was born 12 months later, Poland offered a cradle to the Dutch Royal Family. The author travelled to see the cradle not long ago and she now wrote an article about it, which the Almanac published on its front pages.

We had another conversation with Mayor Jan Golba about the present day and future of Muszyna. We continued our usual occupation – investigating the history of the Muszyna area. So, we walked to the top of the Castle Hill but this time we could only read the historical papers about the ancient fortress.

Tadeusz M. Trajdos prepared an important and interesting source material. It is the Inventory of the orthodox church in Krynica-Village written in Ukrainian in 1941 by the then Krynica rector Father Eugeniusz Chylak who described the condition of his church a few years before it was taken over by the Roman Catholic Church soon after the Lemkos had been deported.

The pre-war guest house "Lwigród" and its decorations were discussed on Almanac pages in the previous years. But this time, Rafał Żebrowski wrote about Kazimierz Sichulski's painting The Defence of Lwów to recall the conditions in which it was painted, how it was lost during the German invasion, and how it was recovered in a relatively recent time.

When looking for the Confederation of Bar traces, we were guided by Maciej Śliwa into a Slovak border village of Frička, from where we moved on to the Poprad river valley to meet Przemysław Polakiewicz and find out whether a guard station could ever exist in the village of Łomnica. We also tried to solve the puzzle of an old gravestone inscription on the northern slope of the Kicarz hill.

Piwniczna is just a few steps from Slovakia. Accompanied by Gabriel Kurczewski, we paid a visit to Hniezdne where the first Fukier wine cellars operated. Then we left Hniezdne to follow the trail of the Zamoyski family up to the Stara Lubovla castle where we were shown around an 18th century brewery, the oldest such relic surviving to our time in Slovakia. Our guide there was Miroslav Števík.

Having come back closer to Muszyna, we called in Krynica once more to join Leszek Zakrzewski and learn about "Barwiczówka," a pre-war guest house of the Railway Family, and then to read about Nikifor's artistic presentation of landscape in an analysis written by Jan Grudnicki. We mentioned the Krynica visit of the Dutch princess very briefly again just to remember the repercussions of the tactless - as the then state authorities claimed - but funny comments made on it by authors of the Polish Radio "Joyful Lwów Wave."

The World War II was referred to in several other articles. Kazimierz Przyboś recalled the local couriers who risked their lives to illegally sneak across the border many times in both directions. Artur Ochał, an expert in the history of the Border Guard Corps tried to reconstruct the last hours of soldier Piotr Dwojak, and Stefan Małecki invited us again to read the War Veterans' Chronicle. Rafał Ojrzanowski presented to the Readers his unique photographs shot during World War II by the German invaders, soldiers stationed in Muszyna.

Do the times of the Galicja province deserve a warm reminiscence? What of the Austro-Hungarian cultural mix has actually survived to our time? What would an alternative course of events have been, had the Habsburg Empire never fallen? These alternatives were analysed by Witold Kaliński in a little paradoxical way.

We must remember that poverty dominated in most highland villages during the long years when Poland was partitioned. A lot of people had to emigrate in search for a better life, most of them to America. Maria Zajączkowska did a research in the US immigration archives and now she wrote about the dramatic destinies of many people who had left Muszyna forever.

Małgorzata Przyboś discussed some more minutes of the Muszyna Council meetings held in the 1930s. Father Stanisław Pietrzak took up his last year's topic of the fast-developing genetic genealogy and its efficiency in casting light on the obscure origins of the population living in the Dunajec immediate and more distant catchment area.

The Almanac carried its usual columns, such as photo reports on events organized by the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac and its befriended organisations and institutions, the memoirs of forester Tadeusz Petrowicz, and a report on the annual Szczęsny Morawski Prize awarded to the best book on the Sądecczyzna region.

The Almanac, in collaboration with the Krynica Photographic Society, had long organized photo competitions to record the disappearing architectural details. But there was a new similar initiative, the Nation-wide Jan Kochanowski's Poprad Laurel competition organized jointly with the Cyprian Norwid Literary Society and its first edition was held in spring this year. The idea is to have this competition every second year.

Much of the Almanac space was dedicated to people who have their family roots in the Muszyna area. We accompanied Father Franciszek Sikorski in his work as a priest, visited Piotr Serwiński in Żegiestów in the 1960s, followed the achievements of Władysław Nowotarski, brother of Leon Nowotarski who was so merited for Krynica, and learnt about Tadeusz Krynicki, one of the heroic defenders of Lwów. Then we hiked the Beskid Sądecki hills with Agata Tobiasz to re-discover the traces of Szczęsny Morawski, while Maciej Bilek showed us some local water sources which were studied by Professor Irena Turowska in 1920s. Again at the Muszyna cemetery, we gave respects to the souls of the 19th century family of the Mayor of Muszyna Józef Medwecki, this time in the company of his great-great-grand daughter Ewa Tarkowska. We went to the village of Jastrzębik, so famous for dancing parties in the 1950s and 1960s, we remembered our childhood years at Kościelna Street, and in the pre-war Piwniczna.

Finally, we gave an account on a happy event in the collaboration with our Slovak friends: following our request, Gabriela Malastová was decorated with the Knight's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland granted to her by Polish President Bronisław Komorowski.



Chapter 2. Muszyna Almanac Bibliography

The Muszyna Almanac Bibliography is a regional, thematic bibliography limited to registering the contents of a single periodical. It encompasses the entirety of material published in the Muszyna Almanac. The bibliographic materials encompass 15 main sections divided into subsections. The number of subsections depend on how much material has been assembled. Within the sections alphabetical order has been employed. All entries have been numbered, and uniform numbering appears throughout the bibliography. In the event an article contains material pertaining to several sections, its description has been included in other appropriate sections. The Muszyna Almanac Bibliography contains a listing of the more important abbreviations appearing in the bibliographical descriptions.



  • The Muszyna Almanac Bibliography for the years 1991–1995 appeared in print in the 1995 Muszyna Almanac.

  • The Muszyna Almanac Bibliography for the years 1991–2000 appeared in print in the 2000 Muszyna Almanac.

  • The Muszyna Almanac Bibliography for the years 1991–2005 appeared in electronic format in the 2005 Muszyna Almanac.

  • Muszyna Almanac Bibliography for the years 1991–2012 appeared in electronic format at in 2012.

The last edition of the Muszyna Almanac Bibliography introduced to the bibliographic descriptions according to norm PN-73/N-01152. Subsections have been added as required by the volume of assembled material.




  1. Bibliographies

  3. Periodicals. Periodical descriptions

  5. General works pertaining to the entire region

  7. Individual localities

  9. Profiles. Biographies. Reminiscences



  1. Maps. Plans

  3. Geography. Geology. Balnaeological resources. Climatology. Hydrology

  5. Vegetation. Wildlife. Environmental protection

  7. Tourism. Sightseeing




  1. Source materials. Documents

  3. Archaeology

  5. History

  7. World War Two








  1. Culture

  3. Science. Education

  5. Museums

  7. Sport




  1. Literary studies

  3. Literary texts



  1. Fine arts

  3. Historical monuments. Painting. Architecture. Monuments

  5. Cemeteries

  7. Music

  9. Photography. Film



Supplementing the bibliography are indexes whose function is to present the contents from a different perspective than shown in the main body of the work. The Muszyna Almanac includes the following: an alphabetical personal index listing the names of authors and individuals mentioned in a given article as well as an index of geographic terms mentioned in the material, also arranged alphabetically. The indexes are in abbreviated form and list only the entry of a given index, numerical data — the year and page of the description in the main body of the work.

The 1991–2005 Alphabetical personal index of the Muszyna Almanac Bibliography has appeared in electronic format at www.almanachmuszyny.pl

The 1991–2012 edition appeared in 2012.

The 1991–2005 Alphabetical geographic index of the Muszyna Almanac Bibliography has appeared in electronic format at www.almanachmuszyny.pl

The 1991–2012 edition is due to appear in 2013.

An index of photos and illustrations is due to appear in 2013 at





Chapter 3. Sącz Region Press Forum

The Sącz Press Forum (SPF) is an annual meeting of editors of press publications issued in the Sącz region or dealing with Sącz-related themes. The Forum is held in the Little Galician Town of the Nowy Sącz District Museum and jointly organised by the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac, the Muszyna Almanac, Sącz Almanac, Civitas Christiana, the Nowy Sącz District Museum and the Nowy Sącz Branch of the Polish Historical Society. It takes place under the academic patronage of the Jagiellonian University’s Institute of Journalism and Social Communication. Its honorary patrons are the head of Nowy Sącz District and the Mayor of the town of Nowy Sącz. The Forum’s programme comprises lectures and panel discussions. A joint programme declaration is adopted at the end of the deliberations.

So far, three Sącz Press Forums have been held:

I SPF – 2nd July 2010 – inaugural Forum;

II SPF – 1st July 2011 – devoted to ‘The role of the local press, libraries and museums in consolidating little homelands of the Sącz Region. How to make that partnership more efficient?’

III SPF – 6th July 2012 – devoted to ‘Local press and archives – partners or competitors?

The Forum is accompanied by the appropriate exhibitions. In 2011, and exhibition entitled ‘The Sącz Press’ one was set up by the Sącz Public Library. It featured dozens of press titles from the 19th century down to the present. In 2012, the state Archives in Nowy Sącz prepared an exhibition of interesting exhibits pertaining to the Sącz Region.

The Forum’s website is: www.sadeczanie.net

The IV Sącz Press Forum, due to be held on 5th July 2013, will be devoted to Carpathian themes and will be titled the First Carpathian Press Forum. Invitations will go out to editors of publications devoted to those topics from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and Ukraine. A new co-organiser will be the Carpathian Society of Warsaw. The contacts will be established with the International Višehrad Fund.

The Press of Sącz Region

The regional and local press of the Sącz region is a specific document of the times. It not only constitutes a mass-information medium but also serves as an element of social communication. The press of the Sącz region traces back to 1891 when the first issue of the periodical “Szkolnictwo Ludowe” (“Popular Education”) appeared. A true compendium of knowledge is “The Sącz press from its inception to the present —1891-2011”, edited by Professor Bolesław Faron. It was the result of a National Scholarly Session held on the 120th anniversary of the first periodical ever published in Nowy Sącz. A pioneering undertaking was creation of the online Sącz Press Portal www.sadeczanie.net. Apart from information on newly emerging local periodicals, the website also provides background on the history of Sącz region publications as well as successive editions of the Local Press Forum. It contains a catalogue of periodicals available at the Sącz Public Library and a review of and bibliographic notes on periodicals currently being published in the Sącz region, prepared by the Municipal Library of Muszyna.

Presented below are some of the Sącz region’s most important and widely read publications:

“Rocznik Sądecki” (Sącz Yearbook)

This is the Sącz region’s most important scholarly journal. With minor interruptions, it has been appearing since 1939. It is published by the Mayor of Nowy Sącz and the Nowy Sącz branch of the Polish Historical Society. Professor Feliks Kiryk is its chief editor. Up till now, 40 volumes have appeared with an average print run of 500 copies. According to its founder and first editor Dr Tadeusz Mączyński, the Yearbook “is to be a regional, scholarly journal in which, for the sake of popularisation, the results of scholarly research are to be published, because it needs to be a constantly enriched and supplemented source of knowledge about the Sącz region.” More at www.rocznik.sacz.pl

“Almanach Muszyny (Muszyna Almanac), or what every holiday-maker, spa-goer, guest and friend of Muszyna should know” — yearbook

It has been published since 1991, initially by the Society of Friends of Muszyna Region, and from 2010 by the Association of Friends of Muszyna Almanac. Its chief editor is Bożena Mściwujewska-Kruk. So far 22 volumes have appeared. It initially had a print run of 1,000 copies, but in light of contemporary trends it was reduced to 700, with another 600 offered in CD form. It is a regional periodical of the Polish-Slovak border region highlighting the history of the town and its environs as well as presenting secular and religious architectural monuments, local scenery and balnaeological resources. It also includes the fate of people on the basis of their unique recollections transcending the bounds of so called “the State of Muszyna.” The periodical has undertaken a number of social initiatives and features its own website www.almanachmuszyny.pl offering an opportunity to peruse back yearbooks in PDF format.

“Zeszyty sądecko-spiskie” / “Sandecko-spišské zošity” (Sącz-Spiš Notebooks) – a yearbook

Published since 2006 in a Polish-Slovak language version by the Nowy Sącz District Museum and the Ľubovnianske Museum, its chief editor is Miroslav Števík. Six volumes with a print run of 1,000 copies have been published so far. It is a scholarly journal meant for the general public presenting the results of historical and related research. It focuses on efforts to popularise the culture and traditions of the partnered regions of Poland’s Sącz a and Spiš on the Slovak side. The publication has been carried out under the project co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund INTERREG.


“Almanach Łącki” (Łącko Almanac) – half-yearly

Published since 2004 by the Society of Friends of Łącko Region. Its chief editor is Professor Julian Dybiec. So far 16 volumes with an average print run of 750 copies have appeared. The publication focuses on the region’s folk culture, history, language and the people connected to it. It is therefore a valuable source of information for ethnologists and historians. Most of the articles are of a reminiscential nature, providing extensive documentation of people, events and things. The publication makes use of the website of the Society of Friends of Łącko Region www.tmzl.elacko.pl where yearbooks can be downloaded in PDF format.

”Almanach Sądecki” (Sącz Almanac) – quarterly

This periodical has been published by the Nowy Sącz branch of the Catholic Civitas Christiana Association since 1992. Its chief editor is Leszek Migrała. Thus far, 79 issues have appeared with an average print run of 500 copies. Meant for the general public, this scholarly periodical is devoted to regional socio-cultural topics including history, ethnography, nature, tourism and literary themes. It is edited by the intelligentsia of the Sacz area. The publication is subsidised by the Nowy Sącz Town and District authorities,

“Kurier Grybowski: local publication of the town of Grybów” – quarterly

This periodical has been published since 2000 by the Mayor of the Town of Grybów and the Grybów Municipal Public Library. Its chief editor is Marzena Hotloś. So far, 52 issues have appeared with an average print run of 500 copies. This local publication is distributed in and around the town of Grybów. It presents the activities of the local authorities, inhabitants and institutions promoting the region, locality and its environs. All issues are available online in PDF format at www.grybow.pl

“Besida: nationally distributed periodical” – bimonthly

This periodical has been published by the Lemko Association in Legnica since 1989. Piotr Trochanowski is its chief editor. Thus far 126 issues have appeared with an average print run of 500 copies. This publication, meant for the Lemko community in Poland and abroad, is published in the Lemko tongue and partially in Polish. The publication’s archives are accessible at the Lemko Association’s website: www.stowarzyszenielemkow.pl and www.lemko.org

“Kurier Starosądecki: (Stary Sącz Courier) bimonthly devoted to information and cultural issues of Stary Sącz District”

It has been published since 1990 by the Ada Sari Culture and Art Centre in Stary Sącz, and its chief editor is Wojciech Waliszewski. Up till now, 202 issues have appeared, and its current press run is 1,500 copies. The publication concentrates on the cultural and social events of the district where many artists well-known throughout the region work and where popular concerts and festivals are held. Form December 2002 the complete issues of the Kurier are available in PDF format at www.kurier.stary.sacz.pl

”Znad Popradu (From the Banks of the Poprad): Publication of the Local Council” - monthly

It has been published since 1991 by the Municipal and District Centre of Culture in Piwniczna-Zdrój. Barbara Paluchowa is the chief editor of this periodical. Thus far, 248 issues have been published, and the publication has a print run of 700 copies. The periodical popularises the traditions and history of the region. From June 2004 the publication is accessible online in PDF format at www.piwniczna.pl

”Krynickie Zdroje: (Krynica Springs) local gazette” – monthly

This periodical has been published since 1994 by the Public Library of the Krynica-Zdrój District. Its chief editor is Grażyna Lubańska. So far, 177 issues have appeared with an average print run of 1,000 copies. The publication deals with the town’s current problems and is a source of information about the surrounding region. It presents the activities of local institutions and schools and registers current events and information pertaining to the life of the community — the town itself as well as the entire district. It also contains articles on Krynica’s past — its history, historical monuments and outstanding sons and daughters. Archival issues may be found online at www.bibliotekakrynica.pl

“Sądeczanin: (Sącz inhabitant) independent monthly”

This monthly has been published since 2008 by the Sącz Foundation of Nowy Sącz. Its chief editor is Henryk Szewczyk. So far, 54 issues have appeared, and the periodical has a print run of 3,000 copies. It focuses on issues close to the heart of Sącz area residents. Topics include the activities of the local council as well as the economy, culture and history of the Sącz area. It highlights people who have made contributions to the region, promotes worthwhile initiatives and publicises projects and conferences organised by the Sącz Foundation. The publication is accessible in PDF format at www.sadeczanin.info as well as in the Małopolska Digital Library at www.mbc.malopolska.pl

“Gazeta Krynicka” (Krynica Gazette) – fortnightly

It is published since 2011 by Strefa Rozrywki S.C in Krynica-Zdrój and its chief editor is Aleksander Ładysz. So far 18 issues have appeared with a print run of 4,500 copies. The Krynica publication is devoted to topics of local interest but is distributed beyond the Krynica area. All the issues are accessible in PDF format at www.gazetakrynicka.pl

”Rocznik Ruskiej Bursy” / “Ricznyk Ruskoj Bursy” (Rusyn Dormitory Yearbook)

This publication has been published since 2005 by the Rusyn Dormitory Association of Gorlice. The chief editor id Helena Duć–Fajfer. Seven volumes have appeared thus far with a print run of 500 copies. This is the only scholarly journal published by the Rusyn community in the world today and one of two scholarly publications devoted to those national and ethnic minorities in Poland. The yearbook is published partially in the Lemko language and partially in Polish. Information about the yearbook can be found at www.ruskabursa.org

The following monthlies stand out among the local parish press:

“Bethania: (Bethany) Publication of Most Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish in Nowy Sącz, the town’s oldest parish bulletin issued since 1992. Its chief editor is Paweł Adamek. So far, 188 issues have appeared with a print run of 750 copies. Issues from June 2001 are accessible at www.bethania.pl;

“Z Grodu Kingi: (From Kinga’s Town): Stary Sącz”, parochial publication of St Elizabeth of Hungary the Roman Catholic Parish, has been appearing since June 1997. Thus far, 181 issues have appeared with a print run of 700 copies. The bulletin is a source of information on cultural and religious events as well as the history and people connected with Stary Sącz. It is edited by Jolanta and Jan Czech.

Two tourist publications appear in Nowy Sącz: ”Beskid”, published since 1990 by the Nowy Sącz branch of the Polish Tatra Society, and “Echo Beskidu” (Beskid Echo), published since 1991 by the Nowy Sącz branch of the Polish Tourist and Sightseeing Society.

Also worthy of note are publications originating outside the region but dealing with topics related to the Sącz r: the yearbooks Magury” (Mount Magura), “Prace Pienińskie” (Pieniny Works), “Almanach Nowotarski” (Nowy Targ Almanac) and “Rocznik Orawski” (Orawa Yearbook) as well as the quarterlies: “Almanach Karpacki Płaj” (Carpathian Płaj Almanac), “Orawa”, “Na Spiszu” (In the Spiš Region), “Almanach Ziemi Limanowskiej” (Almanac of the Limanowa Region) and “Herito.”



Chapter 4. Annual Szczesny Morawski Prize For The Best Book on The Sącz Region

Rules of the Szczęsny Morawski Prize

1. The prize is an honorary, annual award bestowed on the best book of the previous year uncovering new pages in the history of the Sącz region.

2. The prize was established in 2007 by the Muszyna Almanac, the Nowy Sącz branch of the Polish Historical Society, the Sącz Yearbook, Sącz Almanac and the Nowy Sącz District Museum.

3. Candidatures of publications vying for the prize may be submitted by: government and local-council authorities, trade unions, professional and creative associations, cultural institutions, associations, foundations, religious organisations, publishing firms and natural persons

4. Candidatures of publications competing for the prize should be submitted by the end of February of each year in the form of completed applications sent to the Chapter secretary at: redakcja@almanachmuszyny.pl. The application form can be downloaded at: www.almanachmuszyny.pl and www.sadeczanie.net. One copy of any book vying for the prize should be sent by registered post to: "Almanach Muszyny" (Willa "Wanda", ul. Piłsudskiego 56, 33-370 Muszyna. Phone: +48 18 471-48-59). All the submitted publications will remain in a special section of the Public Library in Muszyna.

5. The prize is awarded by the Chapter which comprises ex officio: the president of the Nowy Sącz branch of the Polish Historical Society as Chapter chairman; chief editor of the Muszyna Almanac as Chapter secretary; and the chairman of the Editorial Committee of the Sącz Yearbook, chief editor of the Sącz Almanac and the director of the District Museum in Nowy Sącz , as Chapter members

6. When awarding the Prize, the Chapter takes into account first and foremost:

  • the scholarly and cognitive value of the work vying for the prize,
  • the scope of themes dealt with in the publication,
  • the type of topics being handled, particularly subjects that have so far not been discussed in book form,
  • use of unpublished archival sources,
  • use of unpublished illustrative material,
  • the publication’s editorial excellence.

7. Whenever possible, the Chapter takes its decision on the basis of consensus; if a vote is required and it ends in a draw, the chairman’s vote resolves the stalemate. If among the books competing for the prize are works published by institutions whose representatives are Chapter members, they do not take part in the vote.

8. The Chapter reserves the right not to award the prize in the event the competing publications fail to fulfil the criteria set out in paragraph 6.

9. The prize is presented in early July in the Town Hall of the Little Galician Town in Nowy Sącz in the presence of at least three Chapter members.

10. The prize is a memorial plaque in the form of an engraved stone plate set in wood. It is individually created for each successive edition of the competition.

11. The Chapter will approach the Starost of Sącz to present each laureate of the Prize a Sącz Silver Apple award.

12. The Chapter is promoting knowledge of the Prize in scholarly and publishing circles and will also promote the prize-winning publications themselves.

The award presentation ceremony takes place each year at the Town Hall of the Little Galician Town in Nowy Sącz in early July to coincide with the deliberations of the Sącz Press Forum.

The commemorative statuette of the Honorary Szczęsny Morawski Sącz Region Prize was designed and executed by Sącz monument conservator Józef Stec. Set upon a 27x27 centimetre oak backing is a green marble plate with the engraved gilded inscription that reads: ‘SĄDECCZYZNA (Sącz region) — Szczęsny Morawski Prize for the Best Book on the History and Culture of the Sącz Region.’ Also displayed is the official emblem of the Sącz region. As natural raw materials, oak wood and stone symbolise the natural wealth of the Sącz region, as well as its enduring tradition. Each year the statuette is created from the ground up and constitutes an art work that is one of its kind.

Laureates of the Honorary Szczęsny Morawski Sądecczyzna Prize


The first laureates of the Prize, also honoured with the Silver Sącz Apple award of the Starost of Sącz, were Piotr and Tadeusz Łopatkiewicz of Krosno. They were the authors of a two-volume work, published by the National Museum in Kraków in 2007, whose full title was: Stanisław Tomkowicz’s Inventory of the historical monuments of Sącz district. The Author’s manuscript was published and provided with a commentary by Piotr and Tadeusz Łopatkiewicz.

The value of that publication may be easily compared to such monumental works as Szczęsny Morawski’s Sądecczyzna or the works of Father Jan Sygański. The work’s painstakingly prepared commentary and solicitously handled manuscript, as well as its rich illustrative material have made it a publication of great significance to art historians conducting research in the Sącz region.

Chapter members presented the prize at an award ceremony held on 4th July 2008 in the Little Galician Town in the presence of Nowy Sącz Deputy Starost Mieczysław Kiełbasa and MP Bronisław Dutka. After receiving the prize and diplomas, both authors shared some of the efforts they undertook in preparing this work and sketched a pen portrait of Stanisław Tomkiewicz, the author of the manuscript..


The laureate of the prize’s second edition was Jerzy Leśniak. He received it for his book entitled Szkoła Chrobrego (Chrobry School) 1908–2008, which was acclaimed as the best 2008 publication devoted to the history and culture of the Sącz region. The award was presented by representatives of the contest’s organisers — the Nowy Sącz branch of the Polish Historical Society, the Muszyna Almanac and the District Museum of Nowy Sącz. The ceremony took place on 3rd July 2009 at the Town Hall of the Little Galician Town.

In the laudations delivered on behalf of the contest’ organisers, Leszek Zakrzewski, president of the Nowy Sącz branch of the Polish Historical Society, and Bożena Mściwujewska-Kruk, chief editor of the Muszyna Almanac, emphasised the great contribution of the author who had assembled a huge volume of facts of immeasurable value to future researchers of the history of education in the Sącz region. They held the work up as a model study in school history.

On behalf of Sącz Starost Jan Golonka, the Silver Sącz Apple was presented to the laureate by Józef Zygmunt, member of the Nowosądecki District management.


On 2nd July 2012, The Szczęsny Morawski Prize was awarded for the third time at the Town Hall of the Little Galician Town. The chapter had selected the book Nowosądecka Lista Katyńska (Nowy Sącz Katyń list) as the prize-winning book of 2009. Its author was Jerzy Giza, independence activist and historian, the grandson of General Józef Giza, the founder and director of the Non-Public Primary and Middle School in Kraków. He had worked a dozen-odd years on the second edition of his work. It included the biograms of 224 Sącz-rooted victims of the Katyń Massacre. The award ceremony was held during the Sącz Press Forum in the Little Galician Town. Polish Historical Society President Leszek Zakrzewski delivered the laudation.

The prize was awarded by the chief editor of the Muszyna Almanac Bożena Mściwujewska-Kruk and the director of the Nowy Sącz District Museum Robert Ślusarek. On behalf of Nowy Sącz Starost Józef Golonka, the Sącz Sliver Apple was presented to the laureate in recognition of his contributions to the culture of the Sącz region by director Ślusarek. Jerzy Giza expressed his gratitude for the honours bestowed upon him and delivered a lecture on patriotism.


On 1st July 2011, while the Second Sącz Press Forum was under way, the Szczęsny Morawski prize for the best books on the Sącz region published in 2010 was awarded. In the competition’s fourth edition, the Chapter decided to honour Dr Józef Skrabski, an adjunct at the History of Art and Culture Institute of John Paul II Papal University. He was awarded the prize for his work Kościoły Grybowa. Monografia historyczno-artystyczna (The Churches of Grybów. An Historical-Artistic Monograph), Kraków 2010, 478 pages. The work is an historical and artistic monograph tracing the way the passage of time has influenced the transformation of Grybów churches: the parish church, the Church of St Bernard (timber structures dating from the 15th century) and two other mediaeval timber churches which had already ceased to exist in the 19th century but have been documented with archival sources.

The prize was awarded by Chapter members: Robert Ślusarek, Bożena Mściwujewska-Kruk, Leszek Migrała and Nowy Sącz Starost Jan Golonka who presented the laureate with the Sącz Silver Apple.


On 6th July 2012, during the Third Sącz Press Forum, the fifth jubilee Szczęsny Morawski prize for the best book on the Sącz region that appeared in 2011 was awarded at the Little Galician Town.

In 2012, the Chapter decided to bestow the prize upon Father Jan Kudelka for his work entitled Kościół na Sądecczyźnie w godzinie próby 1939–1945 (The Church in the Sącz region at a time of trial 1939–1945). The laudation was delivered by Father Dr Jan Piotrowski, rector of the Collegiate Chapter in Nowy Sącz. The work contains and outline of the history of the Church in the Sącz region from 1772 to 1939. It discusses the main issues of the Nazi occupation in the Sącz region, the functioning of the Catholic Church in that period and the occupiers’ reprisals against the Church and clergy. The author has presented his own point of view on the Nazi’ crimes in the village of Biegonice (1939-1941), highlighting the lay and religious martyrs in the Sącz region during the Nazi occupation. The great value of this work is its inclusion of many hitherto unknown personal accounts.



Chapter 5. Muszyna Almanac Scholarship Fund

The Muszyna Almanac Scholarship Fund has been in existence since 1999, when its first ten-month scholarship and two one-off stipends were granted. Over 250 recipients have benefited from the Scholarship Found during its nearly 15 years existence, and the value of those scholarship have totalled more than a quarter of a million złotys. The Muszyna Almanac scholarships are addressed to scholastically and artistically gifted young people who also stand out for their involvement in community affairs. The candidate’s material situation is also taken into account.

Scholarship assistance is granted according to rules established by the Siociety of Friends of Muszyna Almanac. At the start of the school year, a public scholarship announcement is issued indicating the type and number of scholarships to be granted for the coming school year. As a result, all students have an equal opportunity to compete for a scholarship and know they must get down to serious study to benefit from the Scholarship Fund in the following year. We want the opportunity of scholarship assistance to have a mobilising effect on students.

Scholarships are granted in the following five categories:

scholastic scholarships for the best scores on school-leaving exams (the largest number of points),

social-scholastic scholarships for high-achieving and socially involved young people from Muszyna secondary school and the middle schools of Muszyna, Powroźnik and Złockie, who require assistance due to their material situation;

artistic scholarships for gifted young people requiring assistance due to their material situation;

social-scholastic scholarships for gifted young people from Stará Lubovla, Slovakia, grated in cooperation with the AMOS Association;

scholastic-social scholarships (known as bridge scholarships) for school leavers from Muszyna who have been accepted to a university.

The procedure whereby candidates are submitted is linked to the Teachers’ Councils of the Secondary School of Muszyna, the State Music School of Krynica and the middle Schools of Muszyna, Złockie and Powroźnik. Upon carefully analysing all the candidatures, the Councils selects the best candidates competing for Muszyna Almanac Scholarships. There also exists the possibility that a young person, who feels he or she has fulfilled all the Scholarship Fund’s requirements, could apply directly to the Teachers’ Council as a candidate. The Association has set up Scholarship Committees which decide which candidates are to receive a Muszyna Almanac scholarship and in what amount. The composition of the committees must be quantitatively dominated by members from beyond Muszyna and Krynica, and the principle that conflicts of interest must be avoided is rigorously observed.

At the start of July, the Committee in charge of scholastic and scholastic-social scholarships interviews prospective recipients of scholastic and scholastic-social scholarships and on that basis decides whether or not to grant a scholarship and in what amount.

The decision to award artistic scholarships is taken by the Artistic Scholarship Committee on the basis of the candidates’ performance at a public concert which is also held in July.

The scholarship-awarding ceremony always takes place on the first Saturday of July at Wanda’s Garden in Muszyna. It is held during the annual meeting of the Friends of the Muszyna Almanac in the presence of the sponsors of the scholarship programme. The signing of scholarship agreements takes place towards the end of the summer vacation. The scholarship monies are transferred to the bank accounts of the recipients or their parents.

The 2013 meeting will mark the 15th anniversary of the first Muszyna Almanac Scholarship. A gathering of all hitherto Muszyna Almanac recipients is planned on that day.

The capital of the Muszyna Almanac Scholarship Fund encompasses freewill donations received during the distribution of the Muszyna Almanac yearbook as well as grants from the Batory Foundation’s Equal Opportunity programme and the Educational Entrepreneurship Foundation’s Bridge Scholarship programme. The Muszynianka Cooperative has also contributed to the scholarship fund. All donors are listed in successive editions of the Muszyna Almanac as well as online at: www.almanachmuszyny.pl. A special bank account has been set up at Bank PKO BP. Contributions to the scholarship fund may be transferred by donors to: Account No. 45 1020 3453 0000 8402 0175 8861, Stowarzyszenie Przyjaciół Almanachu Muszyny. 100% of the contributions are applied to the scholarship fund.

In order to maintain contacts between past and present scholarship recipients, a subsection entitled Scholarship Recipients’ Circle has been developed at the Muszyna Almanac’s Website www.almanachmuszyny.pl which provides information about our beneficiaries. The Website plays the role of information base both for and on scholarship holders. The Association makes use of the latest communication media to maintain ties between past and current Muszyna Almanac scholarship recipients. In addition to their own webpage, the scholarship recipients have accounts at social-networking sites and make use of e-mail addresses. Once a year they come together at a general meeting to determine which of the Association’s activities they wish to become involved in as well as present ideas for new initiatives.

To assist scholarship recipients in planning their careers, each year in May we organise for them an annual meeting with people in various fields of public and economic life who have achieved success in their particular professions. Outstanding scholarship recipients get to take part in the Young Leaders Forum which accompanies Krynica’s annual Economic Forum.

Research conducted by non-governmental organisations on the future fate of students who had received scholarships, especially the scholastic ones, has shown that 80% of them complete higher studies. That has also been the case amongst our scholarship recipients, thereby reaffirming the point of our programme. The data collected on the careers of our scholarship recipients constitute an important guideline for the Association’s activities. They reaffirm the importance of scholarship assistance to local young people. The educational level of the younger generation after all translates into the development of our entire region.

Several of our former scholarship recipients have joined the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac. To us that is important, because it shows that the Muszyna Almanac scholarships help shape the awareness of the younger generation in the direction of active community involvement. In a sense, it is a way of thanking the community for the assistance they received during their student career.


Chapter 6. Cyclical contests, cultural events and Polish-Slovak cooperation

'Architectural detail' photographic competition

This photographic competition organised since 2002 is a valuable initiative intended to document architectural details threatened by destruction. The competition is co-organised by the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac (SPAM) and the Krynica Photographic Society. Each year, the contest deals with a different area or topic. Participants have focused on the localities of Muszyna, Krynica, Żegiestów and Tylicz as well as Stará Lubovla and Bardejov in Slovakia. Other themes have included railway facilities, small bridges and foot bridges as well as other objects. Each edition of the competition is evaluated by a panel of judges appointed by the organisers, and the winning entries are displayed at an exhibition at the Gallery of Main Pump-Room of Krynica. The exhibits are subsequently presented in other Polish localities. In 2008, a photographic exhibition comprising several editions of the contest was held at the Polish Academy’s Earth Museum in Warsaw. Prize-winning photographs are also published in the Muszyna Almanac. Extensive photographic documentation has been compiled and is also available in electronic format. It is of great documentary and educational value. This is an open competition which both amateur art photographers and those with considerable experience to their credit from many cities in Poland and Slovakia may enter. In 2013, exceptionally the focus of the competition will diverge from its main theme and concentrate on ‘the Faces of Poprad Valley.’

Poetry contest for 'Jan Kochanowski’s Poprad Laurels'

In 2011-2012, the first edition of a Poetry contest for 'Jan Kochanowski’s Poprad Laurels' was held. Its organisers was the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac (SPAM) and the Cyprian Norwid Literary Society based in Nowy Sącz. The central aim of the contest is to discover the beauty of Muszyna and environs by means of historical and cultural pilgrimages around the region. The competition comprises two categories: verse and poetic works and limericks. Both categories have enjoyed popularity, and numerous authors from various regions of Poland have sent in their entries. Invited to the judges’ panel were: Adam Ziemianin, a poet linked to Muszyna, as chairman; Kraków poet Józef Baran, a literary contest judge; poet Witold Kaliński, president of the Cyprian Norwid Literary Society; and member of the Cyprian Norwid Literary Society Monika Fabisiak as secretary. The lyric poems submitted to the context hailed Muszyna’s virtues and assets, describing personal impressions as well as encounters with local natural beauty. The limericks perversely focused on Muszyna’s present-day themes, well-known people and events with the touches of sympathy and occasional nastiness (typical of this genre). The winners were chosen in a two-stage elimination process, and the awards were presented at a ceremony held at the Muszyna Public Library on the day of the annual meeting of Friends of Muszyna Almanac. The prize-winning entries have been published in the Muszyna Almanac. The organisers plan to hold the next edition of the contest in 2014 and thereafter every two years.

Polish-Slovak Tennis Tournament in Zapopradzie

For the past 15 years, the beautiful tennis courts in Muszyna’s Zapopradzie quarter have played host to an annual Polish-Slovak tennis tournament. It is open to all interested parties. The event’s main referee is Andrzej Koszucki.

'Poprad Loop' Little Polish-Slovak Cycle Rally

The pilot version of the First 'Poprad Loop' Little Polish-Slovak Cycle Rally was a success. On 18th August 2012, 50 participants from Poland and Slovakia covered a picturesque 41-kilometre stretch of road with elevations totalling 432 metres. The rally started in Muszyna and led through Leluchów, Plavnica, Malý Lipnik and Legnava and ended back in Muszyna. The rally’s success encourages to its inclusion in Poland’s overall series of 2013 cycling events. Muszyna will have thus acquired yet another tourist attraction bringing visitors into the area. The rally’s organisers — SPAM together with the Muszyna-based firms of Hans-Sport and BT Vector, known for their promotion of sports and tourism — invite interested parties to the rally’s second edition. It will be held along the same route on 17th August 2013 and on similar dates in the years ahead.

Calendar of Events: What, where, when?

Thanks to the efforts of Muszyna Almanac collaborator Renata Kopacz, the website www.almanachmuszyny.pl contains a preview of forthcoming cultural, tourist and sporting events taking place in the Sącz area as well as activities organised by the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac.

Polish-Slovak cooperation

The Višehrad Youth Clubs first launched their activities in 2001. They encompass young people from Muszyna, Poland; Stará Ľubovňa, Slovakia; Všetina, Czech Republic; and Nyiregyhazy, Hungary. Over a dozen meetings have been held in different countries as well as many joint seminars and concerts. The culmination of the programme was the ceremony which gave the name Višehrad Bridge to a newly opened span linking the border towns of Muszyna, Poland and Čirč, Slovakia. This event took place in 2004 and the ceremony was attended by the Prime Ministers of Poland and Slovakia. The Program obtained support from International Višehrad Fund.

The Muszyna Almanac contains numerous articles by Slovak authors printed in their native tongue.

A unique development was the trans-border scholarship programme launched in 2000. Joint concerts of Polish and Slovak youth have already become a tradition. In Stará Lubovla they are held at the start of December on the occasion of the feast day of the locality’s patron saint, and in Muszyna — on 1st January.

Every year, joint Polish-Slovak exhibitions are held on both the Polish and Slovak side of the border.



Chapter 7. Friends of the Muszyna Almanac Meetings

Every first Saturday of July, authors and friends of the Muszyna Almanac gather at Wanda’s Garden in Muszyna to promote the latest Muszyna Almanac and award scholarships to talented young people.

When the first issue of the Muszyna Almanac appeared in 1991, a modest meeting of the small team of its authors was held. It was attended by seven people. Such meetings occurred in the years that followed, on the occasion of subsequent Muszyna Almanach editions but the number of participants steadily increased.

In 1995, the hosts surprised their guests with a special cotillion often containing a humorous saying. In 1996 it proclaimed: ‘Witaj brachu w Almanachu’ ( ‘Welcome Bro’ to the Almanac’). In 1997 the inscription read. ‘I read the Almanac and love Muszyna!’ In 1997 for the first time a theme was introduced — Hawaiian Day, and participants were required to come in garb reminiscent of the beautiful Pacific islands. The guest of honour at the meeting was then Public Library director Łucja Bukowska, known for her numerous contributions to Muszyna, who had worked closely with the Almanac. In 2000, when the 10th edition was being promoted, more than 200 people were in attendance.

There was no lack of ideas as to the themes for future meetings. The Friends picked up on the masquerade idea and annual contests for the best costume have been held. At those Saturday in July Almanac meetings, the recipients of the latest scholastic and music scholarships are announced. The first scholastic scholarships were awarded during the promotion of the 9th Muszyna Almanac yearbook in 1999, and the first artistic scholarships were granted at the 12th annual promotion in 2002. Since 2003, scholarships have also been awarded to the best middle-school pupils in Stará Lubovla, Slovakia. In the years that followed, different themes were selected for the annual meetings. Since the 1998 meeting fell on 4th July, American Independence Day set the tone, and the guest of honour was the superb Muszyna-born poet Adam Ziemianin. On that occasion the cotillion read: ‘Our Sheriff is Adam Z.’ Wanda’s Garden was decorated with the necessary props including a saddle and other riding and cowboy accessories, and guests turned up in cowboy, Indian and riding garb. The 1920s and ‘30s were the theme the following year, and the cotillions reflected their spirit. In 2000, the guest of honour was the mayor of the village of Andrzejówka, who had served in that capacity without interruption for 40 years, and the theme was ‘Muszyna at the cultural cross-roads’. Wanda’s Garden was appropriately decked out with multilingual inscriptions welcoming guest who came in the folk costumes of different nations and the traditional garb of Muszyna. The following year (2001), a ‘Mountain Robbers Feast’ was the theme of the year, so Wanda’s Garden was teeming with highland brigands, Janosiks and Ondraszeks (Slavic Robin Hoods) of every size, shape and nationality. This time the meeting’s guest of honour was Juliusz Jarończyk, a well-known Muszyna photographer and model-maker who has contributed to the successes of young people affiliated with the Zefirek Modelling Club. In 2002, guests enjoyed a rock’n’roll climate, and the guest of honour was the late Peasant Party activist and editor Henryk Wiśniewski (who died in 2004). In 2003, we honoured the long-standing sympathisers, collaborators and friends of the Almanac from south of the border, the Slovak couple Gabriela and Jan Malastovec from Stará Lubovla. The theme was therefore Slovak Day. Everyone also had fun in the years that followed . In 2004 we marked Olympic Day, and Muszyna was teeming on the occasion with athletes, Grecian gods and the like. In 2005 it was Ball at the Opera time. Again, the guests rose to the occasion and came elegantly attired like for a premiere at the Opera of Milan and we enjoyed a concert by the Warsaw Salon Orchestra. The year 2006 took us to Enchanted Story Land where we were able to meet the Wolf and Little Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, Miss Piggy, Pippi Langstrumpf, princesses and princes and many other interesting characters. In 2007, Wanda’s Garden was invaded by Indians and the theme was Indian Summer. W enjoyed seeing a presentation of Crow Indian culture prepared by the members of Limanowa’s Hau group, and Indians from the Andes provided the dance music.

The guest list had grown to 300 by 2008, when the Muszyna Almanac’s 18th anniversary was marked. The theme was secondary-school graduation, and everyone had to wear the traditional school arm patches. We could enjoy a performance by the Łejery Children’s Theatre of Poznań, named after the Muszyna poetess Emilia Waśniowska. In 2009, the rhythms of Zorba the Greek resounded, and the theme was ‘Greece — the cradle of our civilisation’. Music was provided by the Greek ensemble Zorba from Wałbrzych, and guests could pick up some basic contemporary Greek phrases adorning the environs of Wanda’s Garden. In 2010, when the 20th jubilee Muszyna Almanac yearbook appeared, a fancy-dress ball was held at Wanda’s Garden, with dance music provided by the Spa Orchestra under the baton of Mieczysław Smyda. In 2011 the theme was Blackjack, marking the Almanac’s 21st year. Since 21 is a lucky number the meeting was embellished with flowers. Sadly, this time the weather did not cooperate, however spirits were raised by the performance of the Happy Harmonicas of Stará Lubovla and the talented youth from Muszyna’s Town and District Centre of Culture. The year 2012 transported us to enchanted world of folk beliefs, populated by witches, devils, water demons, vampires, nymphs, wizards and the like.

The purpose of our meetings is to have a good time but also to share opinions, carry out interesting discussions and obtain new, missing information to supplement articles under preparation. These meet-ups are above all intended to encourage participants to write stories about Muszyna families, childhood memories, the adventures of holidaymakers and about people to whom Muszyna once owed a great deal. They serve to promote cooperation and new friendship. And they are also a way to thank the benefactors who contribute to our scholarship fund.

We invite you to the meet-up of the Friends of the Muszyna Almanac, held in Muszyna always on the first Saturday of July!



Chapter 8. Outline history of Muszyna

It is difficult to say when Muszyna first appeared. For a dozen-odd years now archaeologists have been engaged in research. However except for the castle ruins and the research taking place in the vicinity of the old forestry office and court buildings, the remaining area remains effectively unexplored. But in summer 2010 near the court buildings small fragments of flint arrowheads, probably dating from the younger Palaeolithic period (about BC 8000) were found.

Historians of the Carpathian Mountains have routinely had problems pinpointing the date of Muszyna’s emergence. For a century and a half, an erroneous view has been circulating alleging that that the oldest written mention of Muszyna dated from 1209. That piece of information came from a 1209 document issued by Hungary’s King Andrew II to Demetrius de Rasch pertaining to the collection of customs fees in Ujfal (now Pečovska Ves upon Torysa near Prešov). It orders merchants not to avoid that customs house when transporting goods to Ujfal, ‘usque ad fluvium pop rath versus Muschina’ But the document was a forgery written in script typical of the 16th century. . Unfortunately, from 1864 Polish historians (thanks to Eugeniusz Janota) accepted the document as authentic. And that despite the fact that in 1874 the outstanding historian Franciszek Piekosiński published the first volume of Kodeks dyplomatyczny katedry krakowskiej (Diplomatic code of Kraków Cathedral), in which he published two documents of 1288, where Muszyna was undisputedly mentioned (as ‘Mussina que iacet sub Ungaria”, ie lies on the border with Hungary). We should add that in 1889 Franciszek Piekosiński precisely and correctly described the oldest documents pertaining to Muszyna and its location.

Thus, the first authentic mention of Muszyna as a locality (but not yet a town) dated from documents of Kraków Duke Leszek the Black bearing the dates of 18th and 23rd May 1288. It pertained to an agreement concluded by Comes Mironieg, son of the Castellan of Połaniec Dzierżykraj, and Mironieg’s wife Bogusława (as heir to Canon Wysz of Niegowić of the Połkozic clan who had died before 1279) with the Bishop of Kraków. Wysz of Niegowić willed his private holdings — the village of Świniarsko near Nowy Sącz and the village of Muszyna — to Kraków Bishop Paweł of Przemanków. Hence, in 1288 a small fortified town had existed on the hilltop together with the village of Muszyna between where the brooks Szczawnik and Muszynka emptied into the River Poprad. In 1973–1974, archaeologist Maria Cabalska had studied that fortified town, situated some 200 metres to the north-east of the castle ruins, and uncovered the remains of a stone, timber and earthen rampart, with a wooden structure known as ‘the post’ at its centre. The little fortified town atop Koziejówka Hill was meant to protect Poland’s holdings in the area, since the Hungarians had seized villages situated to the south-east of Muszyna: : Čirč on Poprad, Nową Wolę (ie. Ruska Voľa), Obručne, Lenartov, Malcov and Lukov on Topla. Little known in our literature is a document of the Spiš Chapter to Hungarian King Charles Robert d’Anjou, dated 22nd April 1323. It contained information on lands belonging the castles of Lubovla and Plaveč as well as on the then Polish-Hungarian border which ran from Mniszek (Mnnišek) on Poprad near Piwniczna along the Poprad up to the River Muszynka and farther to its source at Tylicz Pass between Mount Jawor (809 metres) and Mount Chorgo (ie Wysoka Horka – 765 metres). The border ran along the River Muszynka (according to the document: ‘aqua Mussina vocata’). The fact that the Chapter of Spiš regarded the land on the left bank of the Muszynka as belonging to Hungary suggested that the then village of Muszyna covered the area between the fortified town on Mount Koziejówka and the rivulet Szczawnik. At any rate, that did not include the area of the present town on the left bank of the Muszynka. It should be noted that in 1269 Čirč, Ruska Voľa, Obručne, Lenartov, Malcov i Lukov are mentioned as villages still belonging to Poland.

From 1294, the owner of Muszyna was the Bishop of Kraków Jan Muskata. Taking advantage of his position as an advocate of the Bohemia’s Přemyslid Dynasty, in 1303-1305 as the starost of King Vaclav II (from 1297 King of Bohemia, from 1300 of Poland and from 1301 of Hungary) he permanently annexed to his Muszyna holdings the River Biała basin from Mount Chełm near Grybów up to Lackowa Hill near Beskid Pass. Bishop Muskata most probably founded Miastko on Muszynka as a defensive locality close to Tylicz Pass. As a result of a dispute with Władysław the Short, who was busy unifying Polish lands, Muskata lost his Muszyna holdings which Władysław confiscated in 1312 following the bishop’s involvement in the rebellion of Kraków Mayor Albert.

In the years that followed, the area of the future Muszyna estates became the object of interest of the Hungarians who succeeded in shifting the border from the village of Łomnica near Piwniczna to Muszyna along the Poprad, and in the south-east (as mentioned above) up to the Muszynka. In 1337, as a privilege Charles Robert granted Rykold Berżewicz and his sons “the Muszyna brook forest” (Mussina pätaka feu) — an area covering the entire left bank of the Muszynka including the Czerchowkie Hills. That land grant was never implemented, since it involved Polish territory. Similarly in 1338, the Comes of Zadvar Bartłomiej Pangracz received land between the rivers Malczów and Topla, and neither did that grant come to pass. Finally in 1349, the Berżewiczes were again endowed with the lands granted them in 1337, but again they could not take possession of them. In 1366, in a document for Plaveč, the land on the right bank of the Poprad from Leluchów and the brook Smereczek all the way to Muszyna was proclaimed ‘possesio Mussina’ i ‘Regnum Poloniae.’

The Hungarian designs on those lands piqued the interest of Poland’s King Casimir the Great in the borderlands on the Rivers Poprad and Biała. In 1348 he founded Piwniczna in what had been an largely unpopulated green field and set about building a stone castle in Muszyna. The urban centre of Miastko (now Tylicz) was believed to have been transferred to Muszyna. That took place in 1364, since the royal privilege of the 29th November granted Mayor Ankon permission to settle the new town of Muszyna with new settlers, especially merchants. It also exempted Muszyna inhabitants from paying Czchów customs apparently in order to facilitate their trade with Bochnia and Kraków. Unfortunately, Muszyna’s original foundation document was destroyed in the 16th century (during fires in 1589, 1596 or 1600). Therefore, the documents of 26th and 29th November 1364 are the first documented mentions of Muszyna as a town. The next document pertaining to Muszyna dates from 1368-1369 is known as a transumpt contained in a document of King Władysław Jagiełło of 5th August 1391. It mentioned the mayor, councillors and populace of ‘the new town of Muszyna’ and contained the king’s assurances that he would not change the course of ‘Muszyna’s roads and divert arriving merchants away from the town, counting on the townsfolk to mend its bridges.’ On 5th August 1391, Władysław Jagiełło renounced his rights to Muszyna in favour of Kraków Bishop Jan Radlica, whilst simultaneously reaffirming all the rights and freedoms granted the town by Casimir the Great. Thereafter, until 1782, Muszyna would belong to Bishops of Kraków. However, in 1770 Muszyna and the Sącz region were seized by Austrian Empress Marie Theresa. In 1782, Austria made the Muszyna holdings the property of the Austrian Empire.

In general, according to its age-old rhythm Muszyna led a calm and peaceful existence. With the exception of fires, floods, famine and plagues, the town was bypassed by many great historical calamities. In 1410, during the war against the Teutonic Knights, the Hungarian troops of Sigismund of Luxembourg, then allied with the Teutonic Knights, poured into the Sącz region and sought to capture Muszyna Castle. The town survived, but unfortunately in 1474 a Hungarian invasion penetrated as far as Dukla, Krosno and Pilzno. Nearly 200 localities went up in smoke including Muszyna and its castle. In the 16th century the town flourished thanks to the extended period of peace and the entire state’s economic development. The Kraków Bishops looked after the development of the town, the principal commercial centre of their prospering Muszyna estates. Thanks to an intensive settlement campaign, the estates comprised the towns of Muszyna and Tylicz as well as 34 villages. In the 17th century, Muszyna began to decline and deteriorated to the status of an ‘oppidum’, a semi-rural settlement concentrating on cattle and grain production, barter trade and crafts. In the wake of the great fire of 1596, when the church, a good share of the town and part of the castle went up in smoke, in 1629 there were 20 houses in the market square and 14 on its side streets. Five craftsmen pursued their trades and seven bailiffs lived there. By 1655, there were seven bailiffs and eight craftsmen and the same number in 1680. After the 1596 blaze of the castle, it was not rebuilt, was abandoned and went to ruin, and the seat of the starost was moved to a different manor house. On the basis of the extant Book of Admissions to Muszyna’s Municipal Law from 1601, it would appear that the influx of newcomers (mainly from the estates’ villages) barely offset the town’s demographic degradation caused by the economic crisis, wars and basic disasters in the mid-17th century and above all by an epidemic (most likely the bubonic plague) which decimated the population by one-third in 1705–1713. Similar consequences were produced by a famine caused by poor harvests, particularly in 1714-1715. The turmoil caused by the Confederation of Bar luckily bypassed the town. Despite its period of stagnation in 1676 Muszyna received a beautiful, brick parish church, founded by Bishop Andrzej Trzebicki, which has survived down to the present without nay significant changes. It was then that the town expanded to include the area from the large market square to the church. In the town’s south end, a manorial complex was built comprising the starost’s manor and a set of manorial outbuildings (including a sawmill, mill and brewery).

But it was not until Muszyna became part of the Hapsburg monarchy in 1770 that the town’s development accelerated. In 1772, Muszyna counted 1,015 inhabitants and 162 houses and buildings. By 1800, its population had grown to 1,289 and the number of buildings to 206. In 1835 there were 1,589 townsfolk and 1846 — 2,200 inhabitants and 357 houses. But soon the town suffered the greatest misfortune in its annals — a cholera and typhus epidemic in 1847–1849 that killed nearly half its population. As a result, in 1861 the population wasn't yet back to the 1835 level, and in 1870 Muszyna counted 1,852 inhabitants. Another cholera epidemic in 1873 claimed a deadly toll, killing one-sixth of the population. It wasn’t until 1890 that Muszyna counted 2,358 inhabitants.

In 1876, a rail line from Tarnów to Muszyna and on to Hungary via Prešov and Košice was completed. That enlivened Muszyna by providing jobs for local carriage drivers transporting health resort goers from Muszyna to Krynica. A sizable portion of the townsfolk found seasonal employment at the fashionable, quickly developing spa. But the opening of a rail line from Muszyna to Krynica was a disaster for local carriage drivers. Luckily the Great War bypassed Muszyna. Only briefly Russian troops entered the town on 1st -5th December 1914.

In 1930, Muszyna acquired official health-resort status which entitled it to levy a climate tax. The then mayor Antoni Jurczak and the local physician Dr Seweryn Mściwujewski were largely instrumental in turning a sleepy, stagnating town into a modish spa. In their honour, the first mineral springs tapped in Zapopradzie at the turn of the 1930s were named Antoni and Wanda (after Dr Mściwujewski's wife). The town enjoyed swift development in the 1930s. Muszyna received cobbled streets, storm sewers, marketplace squares, and for a time even a petrol station operated there. A concert shell was built on the bank of the Poprad, and a sandy beach was created with changing cabins as well as a kayak and beach-chair rental. A pump room and bath house were also built. A municipal power station was built on the Muszynka river, and a cinema opened its doors in the town’s Main Square. There was also an abattoir, marketplace, sawmill and lace-making workshop. Muszyna became well known and fashionable. In 1934 it obtained municipal rights. During the 1938 summer season it played host to more than 10,000 visitors.

During World War Two Muszyna was temporarily occupied by Slovak troops, soon replaced by Nazi Germany’s Wehrmacht. A tragic fate befell local Jews (accounting for nearly one-quarter of the town’s inhabitants). In winter 1940-41, they were transported to a ghetto in Grybów and were murdered during its subsequent liquidation. During the war, Muszyna was one of the points on an underground route from Warsaw and Kraków to Budapest. The local outpost of the Home Army, operated by local chief forester Stefan Ajdukiewicz and his deputy Bolesław Witowski, was in charge of guiding secret couriers to their destination. The couriers operated until the outbreak of the August uprising in Slovakia. The Gestapo had set up a torture chamber in Muszyna’s Helin guesthouse, and many Polish patriot pension was subjected to that ordeal. On 21st January 1945, Soviet troops entered Muszyna from Krynica, putting an end to German subjugation. But the Germans had managed to cart away or destroy the health resort’s balnaeological equipment.

Major changes bypassed Muszyna during the communist period. But the Lemkos, a Ukrainian ethnic subgroup that had been an inseparable element of local culture since their colonisation in the 15th and 16th centuries, were expelled during a campaign codenamed Vistula. They were replaced by settlers from the overpopulated villages of the Nowy Sącz area. Fortunately, the Poprad Valley was bypassed by major industrial projects. Holiday camps for youngsters and teenagers became Muszyna’s principal form of recreational activity. Health-resort functions were gradually taken over by nearby Złockie, where a number of sanatoriums were built in the 1970s and over a dozen mineral springs were tapped. As a result, Muszyna managed to retain its historic layout with Kościelna, Kita and Piłsudski streets, St Joseph’s Church and the Main Square. After the necessary tidying-up campaign, they became Muszyna's major tourist asset. Newer investments have included the Żerań (now Korona), Ursus (now Muszyna) and Budowlani (Builders — now Revita) sanatoriums. A housing estate has also been built at Piłsudski street.



Chapter 9. Muszyna in brief

In the southern reaches of Małopolska voivodship along the Polish-Slovak border in the valley of the River Poprad and its right-side tributaries, the Muszynka and Szaczawnik, lies the town of Muszyna with population of 6,000. Belonging to the Muszyna district are the nearby villages of Andrzejówka, Dubne, Jastrzębik, Leluchów, Milik, Powroźnik, Szczawnik, Wojkowa, Złockie and Żegiestów. Muszyna owes its balnaeological assets to its location and natural resources. Adding to its picturesque charm are the mountain ridges and the Poprad River Valley which divides the Sącz Beskid Mountains into a western part — the Radziejowa Ridge (1,262 metres above sea level) and an eastern part — the Krynica Jaworzyna Ridge (1,114 metres above sea level). Muszyna lies in a valley bounded on the west by Mikowa Hill (638 metres above sea level), on the north by Koziejówka Hill (636 metres above sea level), on the east by Malnika Hill (726 metres above sea level) and on the south by the border hill Wielka Polana (796 metres above sea level).

The district of Muszyna is situated in the area of the Poprad Landscape Park which was established in 1987. The park is rich in forest scenery and reserves created within its bounds. The reserves located in the vicinity of Muszyna are the Obrożyska, Żebracze, Wierchomla and Hajnik linden woodlands. The Muszyna area also abounds in mineral springs. Those waters are rich in magnesium, calcium, iodine, potassium and iron ions. Popular springs include Antoni, Milusia, Anna, Grunwald and Na Wapiennem in Muszyna; Anna in Żegiestów; Iwona in Jastrzębik; Kazimierz in Milik; Za Cerkwią (Beyond the Orthodox church) in Szczawnik. An interesting natural monument are the mofettes, surface carbon dioxide eruptions. The Professor Świdziński Memorial Mofette, situated between the villages of Złockie and Jastrzębik, is Poland’s biggest.

Already in the mid-18th century there appeared mentions of the area’s mineral spring, but they were not fully developed until the 1920s and ‘30s. At that time, the Antoni and Wanda springs were tapped. Thanks to the efforts of the then health-resort physician Dr Seweryn Mściwujewski and Mayor Antoni Jurczak, Muszyna took advantage of its abundant mineral-water resources. At present, the mineral water is used in hydrotherapy and is available at generally accessible pump rooms as well as being commercially bottled. The sanatoriums offer balnaeotherapy, hydrotherapy and kinesiotherapy in the treatment of respiratory, urinary, gastric and motor ailments. Overnight facilites offer additional attractions such as swimming pools, saunas, individual customised diets, playgrounds, tennis courts, bobsleigh runs and many other amenities.

Muszyna’s latest attraction is a complex of swimming pools in Zapopradzie and a nearby amphitheatre. There in summer during the Mineral Water Festival, May Holidays or Poprad Autumn the performances of stars can be enjoyed. In Szaczawnik Valley, which is linked to Wierchomla skiing station, an area for skiers and snowboard enthusiasts has been created. The chair-lift in Wierchomla also operates in summer, facilitating the pursuit of tourism and mountain cycling for which Muszyna has great conditions. While the Economic Forum takes place in neighbouring Krynica, the festival race organised on that occasion leads through Muszyna.

Muszyna’ principal architectural relics are the ruins situated at the Baszta (watch-tower) of an old defensive castle which has been mentioned in the accompanying text on the history of Muszyna. The road leading from the Baszta to the town centre passes the Museum of the State of Muszyna, recreated on the plan of an 18th-centutry inn. In the square stand old shrines in honour of St Florian and St John Nepomucene. Beneath the square, the old cellars of a no longer existing town hall have survived. There barrels of wine imported from Hungary were once stored, to which an epigram by 16th-century poet Jan Kochanowski alludes.

Along Kościelna (Church) street leading from the Main Square to the church there have survived houses reflecting what might be referred to as 19th-century small-town architecture. Muszyna’s Church of St Joseph the Beloved was built at the turn of the 18th century. Its location and embrasures attest to its defensive character. Niches on the outside of the church contain religious statues. Inside, the prominent feature is the main altar enshrining a statue of the Blessed Virgin and Infant dating from c. 1470 which came from Kraków’s Wawel Cathedral. Also worthy of note are the cordovans imbedded in the altar cloths. A side chapel contains Gothic statues of St Hedwig of Silesia and St Ottilie. Worth visiting is Muszyna’s old cemetery with its numerous beautiful old tombstones. Nearby stands a monument to Cardinal Karol Wojtyła, commemorating his 1970 visit to Muszyna.




Chapter 10. About us

The Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac embraces people from various parts of Poland who are interested in Muszyna Region history, culture and development. Our main initiative is published since 1991 Muszyna Almanac yearly, where several dozen authors have already published over 600 articles. For a dozen of years, the Friends of Musznya Almanac have funded the Muszyna Almanac Scholarship Fund which has financed scholarships for over 250 talented pupils and students. We organise competitions and exhibitions. In cooperation with our partners, we document endangered monuments, award best books on our Region, promote development of tourism and cultural richness of the Region. We also organize annual joint concerts of Polish and Slovak youth. More information about us can be found at: www.almanachmuszyny.pl

The Society Board: Ryszard Kruk - President, Renata Trela – Vice President, Katarzyna Kucia-Garncarczyk - Seceretary, Agata Szymańska - Treasurer, Izabela Cywa - Member

The Audit Committee: Włodzimierz Matuzik - President, Piotr Rutka - Vice President, Maciej Sliwa - Bartlomiej Bujarski, Jiuliusz Jaronczyk - Members

Members of the Society authorities are volunteers and take no remuneration at all.

Number of the entry into National Court Register (KRS) - 0000365118

Editor-in-Chief: Bożena Mściwujewska-Kruk, Program Board: Kazimierz Przyboś (Chairman), Bartłomiej Bujarski, Łucja Bukowska, Barbara Chudzińska Wit Kmietowicz, Ryszard Kruk, Magdalena Małecka-Myślik, Bożena Mściwujewska-Kruk, Tadeusz Łopatkiewicz, Barbara Rucka, Miroslav Števik, Tadeusz M. Trajdos, Tadeusz Wołowiec. Muszyna Almanach Publisher: The Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac. The Muszyna Almanac is entered in the Press Register of the District Court in Nowy Sącz as item A 116. ISSN number: 1234-6276, address: Willa Wanda ul. Józefa Piłsudskiego 56, 33-370 Muszyna, redakcja@almanachmuszyny.pl www.almanachmuszyny.pl

The editorial board and authors of the texts and photographs do not receive any royalties and all proceeds from the distribution of the Muszyna Almanac are put on the account of the Muszyna Almanac Scholarship Fund.

The Muszyna Almanach Scholarship Fund: Scholastic and Social-Scholastic Scholarships Committee: Witold Kaliński (Warsaw/Wierchomla), Chairman; Małgorzata Przyboś (Kraków), Secretary; members: Janina Kumorek (Muszyna), Andrzej Tokarczyk (Muszyna), Beata Zacny (Kraków), Anna Rodak (Warsaw). Artistic Scholarships Committee: Zbigniew Bujarski (Kraków), Chairman, Mieczysław Smyda (Krynica), Secretary, and Wojciech Dąbrowski (Warszawa),

The authors of the publication: A team of members and supporters of the The Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac, composed of: Łucja Bukowska, Izabela Cywa, Zuzanna Długosz, Sylwia Gacek, Renata Kopacz, Ryszard Kruk, Bożena Mściwujewska-Kruk, Kazimierz Przyboś, Małgorzata Przyboś, Agata Szymańska. The team was working pro publico bono, without any author's fees.

The translation into English, German and Slovak has been co-financed by Małopolska Marshal’s Office through a grant from the Małopolska Patronage 2012 programme and by the Society of Friends of Muszyna Almanac, from its own resources.

Adress of the Society and Yearly: Willa Wanda, ul. Józefa Piłsudskiego 56,
33-370 Muszyna, redakcja@almanachmuszyny.pl